Abstract

We present measurements of the power noise that is due to optical amplification in a laser-diode-pumped Nd:YAG free-space traveling-wave linear amplifier in a master-oscillator–power-amplifier configuration. The quantum noise behavior of the optical amplifier was demonstrated by use of InGaAs photodetectors in a balanced detection configuration, at a total photocurrent of 100 mA and in a frequency band from 6.25 to 15.625 MHz. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Tsubono, M. K. Fujimoto, and K. Kurodo, eds., Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 175–182.
  3. S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).
  4. R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.
  5. R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 20, 459 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Shine, “A high-power, diode-laser-pumped, solid-state laser for precision interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation G. L. 5350 (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 69.
  7. W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.
  8. T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Willke, N. Uehara, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, P. King, S. Seel, and R. Savage, Opt. Lett. 23, 1704 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 686 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1073 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  13. M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. J. Kane, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 11, 216 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1073 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 686 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfrey, A. J.

Althouse, W. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R. L.

B. Willke, N. Uehara, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, P. King, S. Seel, and R. Savage, Opt. Lett. 23, 1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 20, 459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kane, W. J. Kozlovsky, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 11, 216 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.

Casey, W. L.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

DeBra, D. B.

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Drever, R. W. P.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, R.

W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.

Fejer, M. M.

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gursel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafson, E. K.

B. Willke, N. Uehara, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, P. King, S. Seel, and R. Savage, Opt. Lett. 23, 1704 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

Harris, M.

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Kawalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, P.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Lambert, S. G.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

Loudon, R.

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Michelson, P. F.

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Raab, F.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutherford, T. S.

W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.

Savage, R.

Seel, S.

Shepherd, T. J.

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 686 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Shine, R. J.

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, and R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 20, 459 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Shine, “A high-power, diode-laser-pumped, solid-state laser for precision interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation G. L. 5350 (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 69.

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spero, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahasi, H.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 686 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. E.

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

Thorne, K. S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 686 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Tulloch, W. M.

W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.

Uehara, N.

Vaughan, J. M.

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Voght, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitcomb, S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willke, B.

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1073 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

Zucker, M. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kawalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1073 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Harris, R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, and J. M. Vaughan, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Shimoda, H. Takahasi, and C. H. Townes, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 12, 686 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Voght, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

K. Tsubono, M. K. Fujimoto, and K. Kurodo, eds., Gravitational Wave Detection (Universal Academy, Tokyo, 1997), pp. 175–182.

S. G. Lambert and W. L. Casey, Laser Communications in Space (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

R. L. Byer, D. B. DeBra, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, P. F. Michelson, Y. Yamamoto, and R. E. Taylor, GALILEO-Stanford Advanced Gravitational-Wave Laser Inter-ferometer Program (Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 23.

R. J. Shine, “A high-power, diode-laser-pumped, solid-state laser for precision interferometry,” Ph.D. dissertation G. L. 5350 (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., 1995), p. 69.

W. M. Tulloch, T. S. Rutherford, R. Ewart, E. K. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.), paper CF3.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (Wiley, New York, 1994).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the power-noise measurement apparatus. The master oscillator is locked to the Fabry–Perot ring cavity by a rf modulation locking technique. Above 5 MHz, the output of the Fabry–Perot ring cavity is shot noise limited at 100-mA photocurrent. The Nd:YAG zig-zag slab amplifier is pumped with 126 W of fiber-coupled laser-diode power. The output of the amplifier is measured with a balanced pair of InGaAs photodetectors and a rf spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power noise as a function of amplifier power gain G compared with the theoretical prediction. The noise is presented in units of times above the shot noise limit, and this provides a measure of the gain-dependent power noise that is due to optical amplification normalized to the shot noise level for the 100-mA photocurrent.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nampzo=Gzon0+fspGzo-1,
σamp2zo=G2zoσin20-n0+Gzon0+2Gzon0fspGzo-1+fspGzo-12+fspGzo-1.
σamp2zo=Gzon01+2fspGzo-1.
ση2=η2σamp2+η1-ηnamp,
σdet2/σshot2=1+2ηfspGzo-1.

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