Abstract

The switch repetition-rate limit of all-optical semiconductor switches, for which the dynamic extinction ratio decreases with increasing repetition rate, is examined and overcome. The extinction ratio is improved by optimization of the interferometer phase bias, which has previously been set to π. The extinction-ratio increase accompanies a drastic change in the output pulse spectrum. Both the output pulse profiles and the spectra, before and after optimization, are successfully reproduced by simulation. As a result, switch repetition of 42 GHz (2.5 times higher than the semiconductor-carrier cutoff frequency) is achieved by use of 5-ps, 1548-nm pump pulses. What are believed to be record low input pump-pulse energies of 750 aJ (peak power, 140 µW) at 10 GHz and 6 fJ (1.1 mW) at 42 GHz are used.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. I. Stegeman and A. Miller, in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), Vol. 1, Chap. 5.
  2. K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746 (1993); S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nakamura and K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1426 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, A. J. Poustie, and K. J. Blow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2457 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. L. Hall and K. A. Rauschenbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper PD-5.
  11. Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, A. J. Poustie, and K. J. Blow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura and K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1426 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746 (1993); S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

Bouchoule, S.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duelk, M.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

Gamper, E.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall and K. A. Rauschenbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper PD-5.

Hess, R.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, K. S.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, S.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

Melchior, H.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

G. I. Stegeman and A. Miller, in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), Vol. 1, Chap. 5.

Nakamura, S.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura and K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1426 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. S.

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A. J.

Prucnal, P. R.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K. A.

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall and K. A. Rauschenbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper PD-5.

Sokoloff, J. P.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and A. Miller, in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), Vol. 1, Chap. 5.

Stubkjaer, K. E.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura and K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1426 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746 (1993); S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vaa, M.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, W.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2457 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, Electron. Lett. 33, 2137 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

N. S. Patel, K. A. Rauschenbach, and K. L. Hall, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1695 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993); I. Glesk, J. P. Sokoloff, and P. R. Prucnal, Electron. Lett. 30, 339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura and K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1426 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746 (1993); S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. I. Stegeman and A. Miller, in Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1993), Vol. 1, Chap. 5.

K. L. Hall and K. A. Rauschenbach, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper PD-5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: Each input pump pulse switches the signal light owing to the band-filling effect in the SOA. The switch-window width is determined by the delay time Δt of the split delay. Q, quarter-wave plate; P, polarizer; F, spectral filter; H’s, half-wave plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated phase shifts for the two split signal components. Solid curves, fast component; dashed curves, slow component. (a) fR=4.2 GHz, τc=60 ps; (b) fR=42 GHz, τc=60 ps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (solid) and calculated (dashed) autocorrelation traces and spectra for the 42-GHz output pulses (a), (b) before and (c), (d) after optimization. The dotted curves in (b) and (d) are calculated spectra for a transform-limited 4-ps pulse for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (solid) and calculated (dashed) spectra of the amplified pump pulses. The input pulse energy was 340 fJ. The nonlinear phase shift was estimated to be 2.0 π.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Streak-camera traces of the 10-GHz output pulses. The intensity scale was carefully calibrated so that the +38dB gain of the post-Er-doped fiber amplifier was taken into account.

Equations (2)

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ΦAt-ΦBt=Φbias-ΔttRΔΦNL,
fΔω=E0texpiΦbias+E0t-Δt×exp-iΔωtdt.

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