Abstract

A novel and simple method to measure the amplitude and the phase of optical pulses is presented. The technique basically involves modulating the optical pulse train in a particular manner and then directly examining the resultant optical spectrum. This experimental measurement technique, which is extremely accurate and sensitive and can be implemented with an all-fiber setup, permits direct measurement of the phase of the optical signal in the frequency domain. Experimental results demonstrate the use of this measurement technique for characterizing optical pulses at 10 GHz from a gain-switched laser diode.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Linke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 593 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 23, 792 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 19, 287 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tomaru, S. Kitajima, and H. Inoue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3978 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Debeau, L. P. Barry, and R. Boittin, Electron. Lett. 30, 74 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1997

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Tomaru, S. Kitajima, and H. Inoue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Debeau, L. P. Barry, and R. Boittin, Electron. Lett. 30, 74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 19, 287 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. A. Linke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 593 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

J. Debeau, L. P. Barry, and R. Boittin, Electron. Lett. 30, 74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boittin, R.

J. Debeau, L. P. Barry, and R. Boittin, Electron. Lett. 30, 74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Debeau, J.

J. Debeau, L. P. Barry, and R. Boittin, Electron. Lett. 30, 74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

Inoue, H.

T. Tomaru, S. Kitajima, and H. Inoue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kitajima, S.

T. Tomaru, S. Kitajima, and H. Inoue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsova, T. I.

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

R. A. Linke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 593 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, T.

T. Tomaru, S. Kitajima, and H. Inoue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wong, V.

Zubov, V. A.

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Tomaru, S. Kitajima, and H. Inoue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3978 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Debeau, L. P. Barry, and R. Boittin, Electron. Lett. 30, 74 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Linke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 593 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

V. A. Zubov and T. I. Kuznetsova, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1285 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the complex spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup using a Mach–Zehnder modulator to convert optical frequency f0 into two frequencies, f0-F/2 and f0+F/2, with Vt=Vmod×cosπFt.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input and output line spectra for a Mach–Zehnder modulator under sinusoidal modulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical pulse intensity and instantaneous frequency obtained by the spectral measurement technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the autocorrelation function of the source under test measured with an autocorrelator and with our method. The narrowest autocorrelation function is simulated from our experimental results for amplitude but with the assumption of a constant phase (no chirp).

Equations (13)

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E˜inf=kEkδf-f0+kF,
Tt=m cosπFt-τ,
E˜outf=E˜fT˜f.
E˜outf=m2kEk exp-jπFτδf-f0-k-0.5F+m2kEk expjπFτδf-f0-k+0.5F.
E˜outf,τ=m2kBk,τδf-f0-k-0.5F,
Bk,τ=Ak expjΦk+πFτ+Ak+1 expjΦk+1-πFτ.
I˜outf,τ=E˜outf2=m24kCk,τδf-f0-k-0.5F,
Ck,τ=Ak+12+Ak2+2AkAk+1 cos Φk,τ,
Φk,τ=2πFτ0-τ+Φk+1-Φk.
ϕk,k+1=2πFτ0+Φk+1-Φk.
τ0=ϕ0,1+ϕ-1,04πF.
Φk=Φk-1+2πFτ0-ϕk+1,k, k>0,Φk=Φk+1-2πFτ0+ϕk,k+1, k<0.
finstt=12πdΦtdt.

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