Abstract

A joint Fourier-transform optical correlator for image recognition based on a novel hybrid photoconducting polymer–nematic liquid-crystal structure is described. The optically addressed active element that we have designed is capable of performing real-time image processing 20 times/s, at light-intensity levels of 10 mW/cm2 with dc operating voltage of the order of 10 V. We present the results of correlation of simple objects as well as complicated photographs. The sensitivity, durability, and reliability of the presented system open possibilities for many applications.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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1998 (4)

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, Photon. Sci. News 3(2), 22 (1998).

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and F. Kajzar, Nonlinear Opt. 19, 157 (1998).

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Commun. 147, 237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Januszko, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 179 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Tayebati, E. Canoglu, C. Hantzis, and R. N. Sacks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1610 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP Lett. 105, 1621 (1994).

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

B. Javidi, Opt. Commun. 75, 8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, and D. A. Gregory, Appl. Phys. B 51, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

Bartkiewicz, S.

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, Photon. Sci. News 3(2), 22 (1998).

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and F. Kajzar, Nonlinear Opt. 19, 157 (1998).

A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Januszko, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 179 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Braatz, P. O.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Canoglu, E.

P. Tayebati, E. Canoglu, C. Hantzis, and R. N. Sacks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1610 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efron, U.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Goodman, J. W.

Goonesekera, A.

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, D. A.

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, and D. A. Gregory, Appl. Phys. B 51, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grinberg, J.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Hantzis, C.

P. Tayebati, E. Canoglu, C. Hantzis, and R. N. Sacks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1610 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Januszko, A.

A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Januszko, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 179 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi, Opt. Commun. 75, 8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B. E.

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajzar, F.

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and F. Kajzar, Nonlinear Opt. 19, 157 (1998).

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, Photon. Sci. News 3(2), 22 (1998).

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Commun. 147, 237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1995).

Kippelen, B.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, M.

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, M. J.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Lu, X. J.

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, and D. A. Gregory, Appl. Phys. B 51, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Januszko, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 179 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, Photon. Sci. News 3(2), 22 (1998).

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and F. Kajzar, Nonlinear Opt. 19, 157 (1998).

Monahan, M. A.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Ono, H.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Commun. 147, 237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parka, J.

A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Januszko, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 179 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP Lett. 105, 1621 (1994).

Sacks, R. N.

P. Tayebati, E. Canoglu, C. Hantzis, and R. N. Sacks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1610 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soffer, B. H.

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP Lett. 105, 1621 (1994).

Takacs, J. M.

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tayebati, P.

P. Tayebati, E. Canoglu, C. Hantzis, and R. N. Sacks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1610 (1997).
[CrossRef]

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

Volodin, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, C. S.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, and D. A. Gregory, Appl. Phys. B 51, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, and D. A. Gregory, Appl. Phys. B 51, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Tayebati, E. Canoglu, C. Hantzis, and R. N. Sacks, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1610 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).

JETP Lett. (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP Lett. 105, 1621 (1994).

Nature (London) (1)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and F. Kajzar, Nonlinear Opt. 19, 157 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (2)

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Commun. 147, 237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Javidi, Opt. Commun. 75, 8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Sci. News (1)

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, Photon. Sci. News 3(2), 22 (1998).

Proc. SPIE (1)

U. Efron, J. Grinberg, P. O. Braatz, M. J. Little, B. H. Soffer, and M. A. Monahan, Proc. SPIE 317, 101 (1981).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Miniewicz, J. Parka, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Januszko, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 179 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Liphardt, A. Goonesekera, B. E. Jones, S. Ducharme, J. M. Takacs, and L. Zhang, Science 263, 367 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the transmissive OASLM: (a) glass plate with ITO-covered surface, (b) thin photoconductive polymer and alignment layer, (c) nematic LC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Full experimental setup of the real-time optical correlator: L1, L2, lenses performing optical Fourier transformation; M1, M2, mirrors. Beam diameter d=20 mm, focal length f=280 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of experiments for image recognition. Reference and object images, correlation peaks, and their three-dimensional plot are shown. See text for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Kinetics of the recording and erasing process observed by monitoring of the correlation peak intensity.

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