Abstract

Subpicosecond synchronization between a mirror-dispersion-controlled 10-fs Ti:sapphire laser and the Free-Electron Laser for Infrared Experiments has been achieved. The measured intensity cross correlation between the two lasers is consistent with a jitter of only 400 fs rms. The wide and continuous tunability of the free-electron laser (FEL; 4.2300 µm) combined with ultrashort pulse duration of six optical cycles and high pulse energy of several tens of microjoules makes a series of two-color experiments possible in a previously inaccessible wavelength range. We demonstrate these capabilities by performing a two-color pump–probe experiment to study carrier cooling in GaAs. A FEL tuned from 8 to 17 µm is used as the pump, and a synchronized Ti:sapphire laser pulse serves as the probe.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. J. Eichler, P. Günther, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 1.
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. See, for example, the specifications of the TOPAS-800 parametric generator–amplifier from Excel-Quantronix.
  5. D. Oepts, A. F. G. van der Meer, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 297 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Stanley, R. L. Swent, and T. I. Smith, Opt. Commun. 115, 87 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986); D. E. Spence, W. E. Sleat, J. M. Evans, W. Sibbet, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Commun. 101, 286 (1993); M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 817 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. P. M. Pellemans and P. C. M. Planken, Phys. Rev. B 57, R4222 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. P. M. Pellemans and P. C. M. Planken, Phys. Rev. B 57, R4222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

D. Oepts, A. F. G. van der Meer, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Stanley, R. L. Swent, and T. I. Smith, Opt. Commun. 115, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986); D. E. Spence, W. E. Sleat, J. M. Evans, W. Sibbet, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Commun. 101, 286 (1993); M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günther, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencz, K.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gulia, M.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günther, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günther, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Hase, A.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaindl, R. A.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knippels, G. M. H.

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kunzel, H.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lutgen, S.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meglio, D.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mols, R. F. X. A. M.

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oepts, D.

D. Oepts, A. F. G. van der Meer, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellemans, H. P. M.

H. P. M. Pellemans and P. C. M. Planken, Phys. Rev. B 57, R4222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

H. P. M. Pellemans and P. C. M. Planken, Phys. Rev. B 57, R4222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günther, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 1.
[CrossRef]

Smith, T. I.

R. J. Stanley, R. L. Swent, and T. I. Smith, Opt. Commun. 115, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R. J.

R. J. Stanley, R. L. Swent, and T. I. Smith, Opt. Commun. 115, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swent, R. L.

R. J. Stanley, R. L. Swent, and T. I. Smith, Opt. Commun. 115, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Amersfoort, P. W.

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oepts, A. F. G. van der Meer, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van der Meer, A. F. G.

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Oepts, A. F. G. van der Meer, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986); D. E. Spence, W. E. Sleat, J. M. Evans, W. Sibbet, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Commun. 101, 286 (1993); M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

L. Xu, G. Tempea, A. Poppe, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, A. Stingl, and K. Ferencz, Appl. Phys. B 65, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986); D. E. Spence, W. E. Sleat, J. M. Evans, W. Sibbet, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Commun. 101, 286 (1993); M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

D. Oepts, A. F. G. van der Meer, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. J. Stanley, R. L. Swent, and T. I. Smith, Opt. Commun. 115, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. P. M. Pellemans and P. C. M. Planken, Phys. Rev. B 57, R4222 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. M. H. Knippels, R. F. X. A. M. Mols, A. F. G. van der Meer, D. Oepts, and P. W. van Amersfoort, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1755 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lutgen, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, A. Hase, H. Kunzel, M. Gulia, D. Meglio, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3657 (1996); V. Chazapis, H. A. Blom, K. L. Vodopyanov, A. G. Norman, and C. C. Phillips, Phys. Rev. B 52, 2516 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

See, for example, the specifications of the TOPAS-800 parametric generator–amplifier from Excel-Quantronix.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günther, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 1.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the synchronization electronics and optics. An ultrastable rf clock (SMG 801.0001.52; Rohde & Schwarz, Munich, Germany) running at 250 MHz is multiplied by 4 to yield 1 GHz. A rf splitter splits the 1-GHz signal into two. One arm serves as the reference clock input for the double-balanced mixer (DBM), and the other part drives the electron gun and the accelerating structures that generate the electron beam that pumps the FEL. A fast silicon diode (Si-PIN) detects the 100-MHz Ti:sapphire pulse train and filters out the 1-GHz component, which is mixed with the 1-GHz clock in the double-balanced mixer, yielding the phase difference. After passing through a 1-MHz low-pass filter (LPF) and a loop filter (unity gain at 1 kHz), the error signal is sent to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) driver for adjustment of the cavity length. A phase shifter is used to control temporal overlap. BS, beam splitter; BPF, bandpass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured optical cross correlation between the FEL running at 9 µm and the Ti:sapphire laser at 800 nm in a 100µm-thick AgGaS2 crystal. The inset on the left-hand side shows the background-free autocorrelation measurement of the 435-fs FEL pulse with a homebuilt autocorrelator based on CdTe,6 and the inset on the right-hand side shows the 10-fs fringe-resolved autocorrelation function of the Ti:sapphire pulse. The derived jitter is 400 fs rms (900 fs FWHM). The scan took approximately 2 min to record.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption change of the Ti:sapphire pulse through a 300µm-thick bulk GaAs samples as a function of delay with respect to the IR pump pulse from the FEL. The different traces were taken at room temperature and correspond to different doping levels and different IR wavelengths and powers. Trace (a) was taken at the 16.7µm wavelength and 3.3×1017 cm-3 doping, trace (b) at 8 µm and 3×1018 cm-3 doping, and trace (c) also at 8 µm and 3×1018 cm-3 doping but with 10 times more FEL power.

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