Abstract

A completely passive method of achieving phase delays inside multimode interference devices is presented. The desired relative phase is obtained by adjustment of the width of the waveguides in conjunction with the tapers to avoid interference inside the multimode section. One can generally apply the delay lines to avoid the use of active elements, and they are less sensitive to changes in wavelength than the traditional method with bends. Using this method, we have designed and analyzed a zero-to-one mode converter. The converter exhibits minimum excess loss of 0.100 and 0.102 for TE and TM polarization, respectively. A very large 1-dB bandwidth exceeding 350 nm is achieved.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Soldano and E. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Paiam and R. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 10, 241 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, Appl. Opt. 34, 6898 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, H. Poulsen, and K. Stubkjaer, paper presented at the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2–4, 1997.

1998 (2)

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Paiam and R. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 10, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, Appl. Opt. 34, 6898 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Soldano and E. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abril, E. J.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, M.

Besse, P. A.

Danielsen, S.

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, H. Poulsen, and K. Stubkjaer, paper presented at the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2–4, 1997.

Llorente, C.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

López, M.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, R. M.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, R.

M. Paiam and R. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 10, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, H. Poulsen, and K. Stubkjaer, paper presented at the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2–4, 1997.

Paiam, M.

M. Paiam and R. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 10, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E.

L. Soldano and E. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H.

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, H. Poulsen, and K. Stubkjaer, paper presented at the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2–4, 1997.

Soldano, L.

L. Soldano and E. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K.

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, H. Poulsen, and K. Stubkjaer, paper presented at the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2–4, 1997.

van der Keijden, J. M. M.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Dongen, T.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Roijen, R.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Stralen, M. J. N.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Keijden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, and M. López, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. (1)

M. Paiam and R. MacDonald, IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 10, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Soldano and E. Pennings, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, H. Poulsen, and K. Stubkjaer, paper presented at the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2–4, 1997.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a). Changing phase waveguides of widths W1 and W2 carrying the output signals from the end of a MMI device to the input of another one. (b) Layout of the delay lines, showing the input and output tapers used to avoid MMI in the lower waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the material system (cross section).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Delay lines and S-bend delays calculated versus wavelength. The first structure was calculated with the exact method, the far-from-cutoff approximation, and a finite-difference beam-propagation method (FDBPM).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Layout of the all-passive MMI mode converter using delay lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the mode converter excess losses with wavelength for delay lines and S bends.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

kxm2+βm2=kr2,
tankxmW=2Rγkxmkxm2-Rγ2,
L=ϕβU-βLϕk02nr2-π2WeU21/2-k02nr2-π2WeL21/2,
τ<3We0λ4nrWeL2.
ϕrTπλ4nrLTWeU2+12τWeL-12τWeU.
ϕrπλ2nrLTWeU2+12τWeL-12τWeU+WeL2-WeU2LS2WeL2WeU2.
β=2πλnr-πλ4nrWe2.

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