Abstract

We report the use of an amplified femtosecond laser for single-shot two-photon exposure of the commercial photoresist SU-8. By scanning of the focal volume through the interior of the resist, three-dimensional (3-D) structures are fabricated on a shot-by-shot basis. The 800-nm two-photon exposure and damage thresholds are 3.2 and 8.1 TW/cm2, respectively. The nonlinear nature of the two-photon process allows the production of features that are smaller than the diffraction limit. Preliminary results suggest that Ti:sapphire oscillators can achieve single-shot two-photon exposure with thresholds as low as 1.6 TW/cm2 at 700 nm, allowing 3-D structures to be constructed at megahertz repetition rates.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 22, 132 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.
  4. E. Yablonovitch and R. Vrijen, “Optical projection lithography at half the Rayleigh resolution limit by two-photon exposure,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  5. M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
    [Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Brugger, J.

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Cumpton, B. H.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Despont, M.

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Dyer, D.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Ehrlich, J.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Erskine, L.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Fahrni, N.

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Harrell, W.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heikal, A.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Kawata, S.

Lorenz, H.

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Marder, S. R.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Maruo, S.

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Nakamura, O.

Perry, J. W.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Renaud, P.

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Röckel, H.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Strickler, J. H.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thayumanavan, S.

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

Vettiger, P.

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Vrijen, R.

E. Yablonovitch and R. Vrijen, “Optical projection lithography at half the Rayleigh resolution limit by two-photon exposure,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Webb, W. W.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, E. S.

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and R. Vrijen, “Optical projection lithography at half the Rayleigh resolution limit by two-photon exposure,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. S. Wu, J. H. Strickler, W. Harrell, and W. W. Webb, Proc. SPIE 1674, 776 (1992); J. H. Strickler and W. W. Webb, Opt. Lett. 16, 1780 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors Actuators A (1)

M. Despont, H. Lorenz, N. Fahrni, J. Brugger, P. Renaud, and P. Vettiger, Sensors Actuators A 64, 33 (1998); L. J. Guérin, M. Bossel, M. Demierre, S. Calmes, and Ph. Renaud, in Proceedings of International Solid-State Sensors and Actuators Conference (Transducers ’97) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), p. 1419.
[Crossref]

Other (2)

B. H. Cumpton, L. Erskine, A. Heikal, J. Ehrlich, M. Rumi, S. Barlow, D. Dyer, D. McCord-Maughon, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 49.

E. Yablonovitch and R. Vrijen, “Optical projection lithography at half the Rayleigh resolution limit by two-photon exposure,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical absorption spectrum of an unexposed SU-8 film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

250 µm×200 µm optical micrographs of developed SU-8 following exposure to 120fs, 800-nm pulses with energy of 300 µJ (top left), 180 µJ (top right), 120 µJ (bottom left), and 60 µJ (bottom right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3-D structures in developed SU-8 produced by consecutive laser shots with two-photon exposure (see text). The scale bars in the top and bottom panels are 20 and 40 µm, respectively.

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