Abstract

We present what is, to our best knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of echo signals generated from a sample in an optical cavity. The configuration allows us to use an optically thin sample and still have high effective absorption as well as relatively uniform excitation in the longitudinal direction within the sample. We observed echo signal power of up to twice that of certain input fields. The observed efficiency is much greater than the normally expected few percent. By using an input field encoded with a bit sequence, we also show that the cavity does not introduce significant distortion into the reproduced signal.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. L. Shoemaker, in Lasers and Coherence Spectroscopy, J. T. Steinfeld, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1978).
  3. M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, rev. ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6 and references therein.
  4. T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Manykin and S. Zakharov, Proc. SPIE 2969, 64 (1996); V. A. Katulin, A. A. Biryukov, and V. V. Samartsev, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 53, 1 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 77 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Mitsunaga, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1137 (1992), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  9. T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 17, 535 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. X. A. Shen, E. Chiang, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 19, 1246 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 910 (1995); T. Wang, H. Lin, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 2541 (1995); X. A. Shen and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 20, 2508 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. B. S. Ham and M. K. Kim, Appl. Opt. 33, 4472 (1994); B. Luo, U. Elman, S. Kroll, R. Paschotta, and A. Tropper, Opt. Lett. 23, 442 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Azadeh and W. R. Babbitt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 291, 269 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Wang, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Commun. 153, 309 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. S. Shiren, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. A. Zu?kov, V. V. Samartsev, and E. A. Turiyanski?, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 349 (1981).
  18. T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  19. J.-L. Le Gouët and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1105 (1979).
    [Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Wang, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Commun. 153, 309 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Azadeh and W. R. Babbitt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 291, 269 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Manykin and S. Zakharov, Proc. SPIE 2969, 64 (1996); V. A. Katulin, A. A. Biryukov, and V. V. Samartsev, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 53, 1 (1989).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

M. Mitsunaga, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1137 (1992), and references therein.
[Crossref]

T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 17, 535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

V. A. Zu?kov, V. V. Samartsev, and E. A. Turiyanski?, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 349 (1981).

1979 (3)

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Le Gouët and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1105 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

N. S. Shiren, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299 (1978).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abella, I. D.

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

Azadeh, M.

M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Azadeh and W. R. Babbitt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 291, 269 (1996).
[Crossref]

Babbitt, W. R.

M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Azadeh and W. R. Babbitt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 291, 269 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 910 (1995); T. Wang, H. Lin, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 2541 (1995); X. A. Shen and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 20, 2508 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y. S.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[Crossref]

Berman, P. R.

J.-L. Le Gouët and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1105 (1979).
[Crossref]

Carlson, N. W.

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chiang, E.

Flusberg, A. M.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
[Crossref]

Greiner, C.

T. Wang, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Commun. 153, 309 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ham, B. S.

Hartman, S. R.

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, S. R.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kachru, R.

X. A. Shen, E. Chiang, and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 19, 1246 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kano, S. S.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, rev. ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6 and references therein.

Kim, M. K.

Kurnit, N. A.

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

Le Gouët, J.-L.

J.-L. Le Gouët and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1105 (1979).
[Crossref]

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, rev. ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6 and references therein.

Manykin, E.

E. Manykin and S. Zakharov, Proc. SPIE 2969, 64 (1996); V. A. Katulin, A. A. Biryukov, and V. V. Samartsev, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 53, 1 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mitsunaga, M.

M. Mitsunaga, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1137 (1992), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Mossberg, T. W.

T. Wang, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Commun. 153, 309 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 910 (1995); T. Wang, H. Lin, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 20, 2541 (1995); X. A. Shen and R. Kachru, Opt. Lett. 20, 2508 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 17, 535 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 77 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
[Crossref]

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
[Crossref]

Samartsev, V. V.

V. A. Zu?kov, V. V. Samartsev, and E. A. Turiyanski?, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 349 (1981).

Shen, X. A.

Shiren, N. S.

N. S. Shiren, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299 (1978).
[Crossref]

Shoemaker, R. L.

R. L. Shoemaker, in Lasers and Coherence Spectroscopy, J. T. Steinfeld, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1978).

Sjaarda Cornish, C.

M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tsand, L.

M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
[Crossref]

Turiyanskii, E. A.

V. A. Zu?kov, V. V. Samartsev, and E. A. Turiyanski?, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 349 (1981).

Wang, T.

T. Wang, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Commun. 153, 309 (1998).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, E.

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
[Crossref]

Zakharov, S.

E. Manykin and S. Zakharov, Proc. SPIE 2969, 64 (1996); V. A. Katulin, A. A. Biryukov, and V. V. Samartsev, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 53, 1 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zuikov, V. A.

V. A. Zu?kov, V. V. Samartsev, and E. A. Turiyanski?, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 349 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. S. Shiren, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 299 (1978).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Bai, W. R. Babbitt, N. W. Carlson, and T. W. Mossberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 714 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. Azadeh and W. R. Babbitt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 291, 269 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Wang, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Commun. 153, 309 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Mitsunaga, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1137 (1992), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, S. R. Hartmann, and A. M. Flusberg, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1976 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Azadeh, C. Sjaarda Cornish, W. R. Babbitt, and L. Tsand, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4662 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.-L. Le Gouët and P. R. Berman, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1105 (1979).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. W. Mossberg, R. Kachru, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 851 (1979); R. Kachru, T. W. Mossberg, E. Whittaker, and S. R. Hartmann, Opt. Commun. 31, 223 (1979).
[Crossref]

N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567 (1964).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Manykin and S. Zakharov, Proc. SPIE 2969, 64 (1996); V. A. Katulin, A. A. Biryukov, and V. V. Samartsev, Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 53, 1 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. A. Zu?kov, V. V. Samartsev, and E. A. Turiyanski?, Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 349 (1981).

Other (2)

R. L. Shoemaker, in Lasers and Coherence Spectroscopy, J. T. Steinfeld, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1978).

M. D. Levenson and S. S. Kano, Introduction to Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, rev. ed. (Academic, New York, 1988), Chap. 6 and references therein.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the cavity and the sample. M1, first cavity mirror; M2, second cavity mirror. (b) Trace I, effective absorption versus single-pass absorption for our cavity; trace II, peak transmitted power of the cavity versus single-pass absorption, normalized to the peak transmitted power at zero absorption. These are calculated results, and we assume no other intracavity loss here. (c) Solid curve, experimentally observed transmitted power of our cavity during laser frequency scan. Dashed curve, approximate sample absorption profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: AOM, acousto-optical modulator; APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recording of photon echo (solid curve) and the corresponding input fields (dashed curve) after M2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Recordings of stimulated echoes (on atomic resonance) and the corresponding input fields (off atomic resonance) after M2. (a) Stimulated echoes with a single-pulse input data field. The arrow indicates the stimulated echo. (b) Stimulated echoes with a data field encoded with bit sequence 1101.

Equations (3)

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EePetPdt=T1+T2PeoTNRT2Pdo.
Ee*=Ee exp4τ12/T2,
Ese*=Ee exp4τ12/T2exp2τ23/T1,

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