Abstract

Near-infrared (NIR) optical image reconstruction that incorporates magnetic resonance image (MRI) structural data was tested in a series of simulated reconstructions. NIR diffuse tomography generally suffers from comparatively low spatial resolution. By using the fine structural detail that is available with MRI, combined with the functional information of NIR spectroscopy, it is possible to design a new image-reconstruction methodology that provides high-resolution images that are correlated with hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. To test this concept a MRI spin-echo image of a rat cranium was used to obtain an outline of the bone, brain, and muscle tissues, and this information was incorporated into an iterative-based diffuse tomography reconstruction. These simulations represent what is believed to be the first attempt at evaluating a spatially constrained iterative-reconstruction MRI–NIR imaging modality for brain tissue.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1997

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, U. L. Osterberg, and M. S. Patterson, Appl. Opt. 36, 52 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, Appl. Opt. 35, 3447 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 22, 691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, Proc. SPIE 2389, 378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. D. Paulsen, M. J. Moskowitz, and T. P. Ryan, Int. J. Hyperthermia 10, 209 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

B. K. Siesjo, J. Neurosurg. 77, 169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1431, 204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1988

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 26, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alsop, D. C.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aral, B.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

Aronson, R.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, Proc. SPIE 2389, 378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1431, 204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, S. S.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 28, 2331 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, J.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1431, 204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 26, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corballis, P. M.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1431, 204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 26, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Detre, J. A.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J. F.

J. F. Dunn, Y. Z. Wadghiri, B. Pogue, and I. Kida, “BOLD vs. NIR spectroscopy: will the best technique come forward?” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).

Fabiani, M.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fountain, M.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, D.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman-Wood, M. R.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graber, H. L.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gratton, E.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, G.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenfield, R.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunbaum, F. A.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, J.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hockel, M.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

Holtom, G.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hood, D. C.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Kent, J.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kida, I.

J. F. Dunn, Y. Z. Wadghiri, B. Pogue, and I. Kida, “BOLD vs. NIR spectroscopy: will the best technique come forward?” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).

Kim, K.

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohn, P. D.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, P. C.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCully, K.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitze, M.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

Moskowitz, M. J.

K. D. Paulsen, M. J. Moskowitz, and T. P. Ryan, Int. J. Hyperthermia 10, 209 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

Patterson, M. S.

Paulsen, K. D.

Pogue, B.

J. F. Dunn, Y. Z. Wadghiri, B. Pogue, and I. Kida, “BOLD vs. NIR spectroscopy: will the best technique come forward?” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).

Ryan, T. P.

K. D. Paulsen, M. J. Moskowitz, and T. P. Ryan, Int. J. Hyperthermia 10, 209 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, U.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

Schlenger, K.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

Schweiger, M.

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, Proc. SPIE 2389, 378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siesjo, B. K.

B. K. Siesjo, J. Neurosurg. 77, 169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Singer, J. R.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zee, P.

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1431, 204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaupel, P.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wadghiri, Y. Z.

J. F. Dunn, Y. Z. Wadghiri, B. Pogue, and I. Kida, “BOLD vs. NIR spectroscopy: will the best technique come forward?” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).

Wilson, B. C.

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubelli, J. P.

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, and G. Holtom, Anal. Biochem. 174, 698 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Cancer Res.

M. Hockel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, and P. Vaupel, Cancer Res. 56, 4509 (1996).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag.

J. Chang, H. L. Graber, P. C. Koo, R. Aronson, S. S. Barbour, and R. L. Barbour, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 16, 68 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Hyperthermia

K. D. Paulsen, M. J. Moskowitz, and T. P. Ryan, Int. J. Hyperthermia 10, 209 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosurg.

B. K. Siesjo, J. Neurosurg. 77, 169 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comp.

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 26, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys.

K. D. Paulsen and H. Jiang, Med. Phys. 22, 691 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, P. M. Corballis, D. C. Hood, M. R. Goodman-Wood, J. Hirsch, K. Kim, D. Friedman, and E. Gratton, Neuroimage 6, 168 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B

B. Chance, Q. Luo, S. Nioka, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 352, 707 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

S. R. Arridge, P. van der Zee, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Proc. SPIE 1431, 204 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge and M. Schweiger, Proc. SPIE 2389, 378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. R. Singer, F. A. Grunbaum, P. D. Kohn, and J. P. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. F. Dunn, Y. Z. Wadghiri, B. Pogue, and I. Kida, “BOLD vs. NIR spectroscopy: will the best technique come forward?” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Spin-echo image of the rat cranium. The different tissue compositions can be observed in this image. Some of the most relevant for optical imaging are muscle, bone, and brain parenchyma. This image was converted into a finite-element mesh with a matlab routine that segmented out the relevant three tissue types, as shown in (b). The mesh used for imaging simulations is shown in (c), which has 407 nodes and 738 elements. This mesh is sufficient for NIR imaging with 16 sources and 16 detectors, since a limited image resolution can be achieved with these 256 projection measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The node structure was assigned optical properties that were chosen from the literature to be representative of muscle, bone, and brain tissue at the 800-nm wavelength. (a) Absorption coefficient distribution of assignments, where muscle was set to 0.01 mm-1, bone to 0.025 mm-1, and brain to 0.03 mm-1. This data set was used as the input distribution for a series of simulations of the light propagation through the rat cranium by use of diffusion theory to predict the light distribution. Image (b) shows a typical image reconstruction that can be achieved with projections simulated from image (a). Image (c) shows the reconstruction that was possible when the property recovery was constrained to only the bone and brain tissue regions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An increase in blood volume was simulated by use of the original optical property image with a circular inclusion added to (a) the brain tissue (right quadrant of brain, white circle), which would correspond to a 33% increase in blood volume. (b) Simulated NIRS image reconstruction of the rat cranium without the use of any a priori information other than the external boundary of the head. (c) The same reconstruction but including a priori knowledge of the brain, skull, and muscle tissue locations and optical properties, which were included as the first guess of the optical property distribution.

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