Abstract

A planar waveguide composed of the new nonlinear material, Ca4GdOBO33 (GdCOB), is reported. This crystal belongs to the calcium oxoborate family. It has attractive nonlinear properties that can be of great interest in integrated optics applications. We used a method of He+ implantation to fabricate waveguides in GdCOB crystals by creating a buried layer of lowered refractive index a few micrometers beneath the surface. Both TE and TM modes were observed. Therefore, according to the Y cut of the crystal, refractive-index values of nx, ny, and nz were obtained. Index profiles were reconstructed by an improved inverse WKB method. The profiles showed a steplike index behavior, indicating that the guiding region obtained was of good optical quality.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Laurell, Electron. Lett. 29, 1629 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).
  3. G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.
  4. G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.
  6. M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Berlein, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4999 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 652 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 553 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).
  12. T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Opt. Commun. 137, 37 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 294 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol. 1 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
  19. L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1185 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

F. Laurell, Electron. Lett. 29, 1629 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Berlein, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4999 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 652 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aka, G.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Augé, F.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Balembois, F.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Ballman, A. A.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

Benitez, J. M.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

Berlein, J. D.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Berlein, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4999 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Biersack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol. 1 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Bloch, L.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

Boudrioua, A.

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Opt. Commun. 137, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, H.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Buchal, C.

Chandler, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Colin, P.

Damelet, J. L.

Ferretti, A.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Berlein, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4999 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

Georges, P.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Godard, J.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

Günter, P.

Hsiung, H.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kahn-Harari, A.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell, Electron. Lett. 29, 1629 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Littmark, U.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol. 1 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Loulergue, J. C.

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Opt. Commun. 137, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mougel, F.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Pelenc, D.

Pliska, T.

Polgar, K.

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riva-Sanseverino, S.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Roelofs, M. G.

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Berlein, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4999 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

Shah, M. L.

M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 652 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325 (1970).

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol. 1 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 652 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, and H. Hsiung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 301 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, A. A. Ballman, and H. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Laurell, Electron. Lett. 29, 1629 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. (1)

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. G. Roelofs, A. Ferretti, and J. D. Berlein, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4999 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1185 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Opt. Commun. 137, 37 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and K. Polgar, Phys. Status Solidi 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. Boudrioua and J. C. Loulergue, Phys. Status Solidi A 153, 553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 10 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 210.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the Crismatec Company, “Cristaux non linears et leurs applications,” French patentFR 95/01963, European patent extension96904152. 4-2205, February16, 1996, international patent extension pending.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Vol. 1 of The Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive-index profiles nx, ny, and nz obtained from the measured effective indices by an inverse WKB method (left-hand scale). The concentration of the implanted ions versus the waveguide depth (right-hand scale) obtained by the TRIM code is also shown.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Measured and Computed Effective Mode Indices for the GdCOB: He+ Waveguidea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive-Index Behavior in a y-Cut GdCOB Waveguide Induced by He+ Implantation

Metrics