Abstract

A closed-loop phase-shifting Fizeau-type interferometer at λ=633 nm was constructed with the direct frequency modulation of laser diodes. The interferometer is servo controlled fully in the phase domain where optical phases are detected by a two-frequency optical heterodyne method. Stepwise phase shifting was accomplished with good stabilization against external disturbances (vibration, air flow, etc.)  and laser frequency fluctuations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Kubota, M. Nara, and T. Yoshino, Opt. Lett. 12, 310 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Ishii, J. Chen, and K. Murata, Opt. Lett. 12, 233 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Yoshino, M. Nara, S. Mnatzakanian, B. S. Lee, and T. Strand, Appl. Opt. 26, 892 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Hariharan, Appl. Opt. 28, 1749 (1989).
  5. R. Onodera, Y. Ishii, N. Ohde, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 674 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Takahashi, T. Yoshino, and N. Ohde, Appl. Opt. 36, 5881 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

R. Onodera, Y. Ishii, N. Ohde, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (3)

Chen, J.

Hariharan, P.

Ishii, Y.

R. Onodera, Y. Ishii, N. Ohde, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishii, J. Chen, and K. Murata, Opt. Lett. 12, 233 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, T.

Lee, B. S.

Mnatzakanian, S.

Murata, K.

Nara, M.

Ohde, N.

Y. Takahashi, T. Yoshino, and N. Ohde, Appl. Opt. 36, 5881 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Onodera, Y. Ishii, N. Ohde, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Onodera, R.

R. Onodera, Y. Ishii, N. Ohde, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T.

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, T. Yoshino, and N. Ohde, Appl. Opt. 36, 5881 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Onodera, Y. Ishii, N. Ohde, Y. Takahashi, and T. Yoshino, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Entire system for a closed-loop phase-shifting interferometer. M, perfectly reflecting mirror; OSC, oscilloscope; DVM, digital volt meter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationships between output voltage of phase meter V and interferometer phase δ, given by Eqs.  (2) and (5), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed fringe patterns (lateral width, 5  mm) when feedback is (a) off and (b) on.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phasemeter output in the closed-loop interferometer under application of 1-Hz vibrational disturbance when feedback (FB) is on and off.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

90° phase stepping experiment when air between HM1 and HM2 was disturbed by being breathed on. The phase stability is compared between when feedback is on and off.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ=4πfnd/c,
V=Bδ-2mπ  m,integers,
I=I0+AV-V0,
f=f0+χI.
V=V0-f0/χA-I0/A+c/4πχndAδ,
δ=V0-f0/χA-I0/A+2mBπ/B-c/4πχndA,
Δδ=ΔV0/B-c/4πχndA.

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