Abstract

We report the fabrication of large, laser-formed refractive microlens arrays on doped borosilicate glass. Tuning the laser heat-source properties was found to give precise control over the melt process and the resulting lenslet geometries. Measurements of focal length, index, and surface shapes show excellent uniformity across these arrays.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

T. R. Jay and M. B. Stern, Opt. Eng. 33, 3552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1988 (2)

1983 (1)

1977 (2)

M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977); M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), p. 44.
[CrossRef]

T. R. Anthony and H. E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3888 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, T. R.

T. R. Anthony and H. E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3888 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Beadie, G.

Borelli, N. F.

Cline, H. E.

T. R. Anthony and H. E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3888 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Connell, N.

Iga, K.

Jay, T. R.

T. R. Jay and M. B. Stern, Opt. Eng. 33, 3552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and G. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

Lax, M.

M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977); M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), p. 44.
[CrossRef]

Lazare, S.

Mihailov, S.

Misawa, S.

Morse, D. K.

Oikawa, M.

Popovic, Z. D.

Scholze, H.

H. Scholze, Glass:?Nature, Structure and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 228.

Sprague, R. A.

Stern, M. B.

T. R. Jay and M. B. Stern, Opt. Eng. 33, 3552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G.

A. Kumar and G. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Kumar and G. Whitesides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2002 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Lax, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3919 (1977); M. von Allmen and A. Blatter, Laser-Beam Interactions with Materials (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), p. 44.
[CrossRef]

T. R. Anthony and H. E. Cline, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3888 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. R. Jay and M. B. Stern, Opt. Eng. 33, 3552 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

H. Scholze, Glass:?Nature, Structure and Properties (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), p. 228.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope image of a dense spherical lens array in reflection. The lenses are 85 µm in diameter. The bright spots in the center are virtual images of the illumination aperture. (b). Scanning electron microscope image of a dense cylindrical lens array. The lenses are 4.5 µm wide by 1.5 µm tall, covering an area of 4 mm by 2 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope images of several lens edge profiles. Note the varying surface shapes and contact angles. The lower part of each image is the lens reflection from the glass substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical lens surface shape measured by interferometry. (b) Residual lens surface after subtraction of the best-fit sphere. Note the astigmatism that is present. Typical rms deviations were of the order of 0.15 waves (at 648 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Steady-state temperature rise TR, z=0, t= for OG-550 glass versus radius,8 normalized by the Gaussian laser beam radius. The radius reaching the glass-transformation temperature Ttrans=TRise+TRoom=870 K is noted on the plot.

Equations (5)

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FL=Rc/n-1,
Rc=D2/8H+H/2,
f number=1/2N.A.FL/D.
Tr, z=0, t==Pw/2Kwπ1/2exp-r2/2w2×I0r2/2w2Cα
τs10 w2/κ

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