Abstract

We describe and illustrate experimentally a method aimed at the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of fluorescent inhomogeneities embedded in a turbid medium. The method utilizes incoherent scanning holography to capture 3D information in a single two-dimensional scan and phase-sensitive heterodyne detection to reject multiply scattered light and to produce a single-sideband holographic record. The 3D imaging capability of the method is illustrated by an example.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, and A. Katzir, eds., Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media:?Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, Proc. SPIE2389 (1995).
  2. R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).
  3. E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, Vol. 3 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).
  4. Ref.??3, pp. 166–219.
  5. B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T.-C. Poon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 521 (1985); T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Mertz and N. O. Young, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Techniques, K. J. Habell, ed. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1962), p. 305.

1997 (2)

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Indebetouw, G.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, L.

L. Mertz and N. O. Young, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Techniques, K. J. Habell, ed. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1962), p. 305.

O’Leary, M. A.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poon, T.-C.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 521 (1985); T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schilling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, B. W.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, K.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Storrie, B.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, N. O.

L. Mertz and N. O. Young, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Techniques, K. J. Habell, ed. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1962), p. 305.

J. Lumin. (1)

M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, J. Lumin. 60/61, 281 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

L. Mertz and N. O. Young, in Proceedings of the Conference on Optical Instrumentation and Techniques, K. J. Habell, ed. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1962), p. 305.

B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, and A. Katzir, eds., Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media:?Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, Proc. SPIE2389 (1995).

R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

E. Sevick-Muraca and D. Benaron, eds., Biomedical Optical Spectroscopy and Diagnostics, Vol. 3 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Ref.??3, pp. 166–219.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup: AO1, AO2, acousto-optic modulators, 40 and 40.01  MHz, respectively; P1–P3, pinhole apertures; BE1, BE2, beam expanders; L, focusing lens; F, fluorescence filter (600  nm); PM, photomultiplier; PD, photodiode; I, in-phase (cosine) and Q, quadrature (sine) signals; A/D, analog-to-digital converter; PC, computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Traces through the holographic record. Top, cosine hologram; bottom, sine hologram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Traces through the reconstruction of two hollow-core fibers (120-µm inner diameter) filled with Rhodamine 6G embedded 8 and 20  mm, respectively, behind the cuvette window. The turbid medium is a water solution of polystyrene beads with an extinction length of 15 mm. The two fibers are Δx1 mm and Δz12 mm apart. Each trace is focused on a different fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of the intensity in an xz plane through the reconstruction, permitting quantitative location of the two fibers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reconstruction of a hollow-core fiber embedded 30  mm behind the cuvette window with a turbid medium having an extinction length of 6 mm.

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