Abstract

Using a multilayer spherical mirror, we focus the high-order harmonic radiation produced near 55 nm by the nonlinear interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pulse and a xenon gas jet. The focused XUV beam is characterized by a knife-edge technique in the focal region and by far-field imaging. We show that good-quality beams, nearly two times diffraction limited, can be generated, a conclusion that is at variance with recent predictions of harmonic phase-front distortion. Spot sizes close to 10 µm are obtained, resulting in a high XUV intensity. Increasing the gas density and the length of the generating medium results in a large increase in the divergence in and degradation of the beam quality.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Haight and D. R. Peale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.
  5. Y. Kobayashi, T. Sekikawa, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, Opt. Lett. 23, 64 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. A 51, R906 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Muffet, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. Phys. B 27, 5693 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Peatross, J. L. Chaloupka, and D. D. Meyerhofer, Opt. Lett. 19, 942 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. E. Siegman, Proc. SPIE 1224, 2 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal coherence of high order harmonics,” Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. A 51, R906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Peatross, J. L. Chaloupka, and D. D. Meyerhofer, Opt. Lett. 19, 942 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Muffet, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. Phys. B 27, 5693 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. E. Siegman, Proc. SPIE 1224, 2 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Antoine, Ph.

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal coherence of high order harmonics,” Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Antonetti, A.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Balcou, Ph.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhal, A.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Breger, P.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Budil, K. S.

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Candel, S.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaloupka, J. L.

Ciarocca, M.

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Constantinescu, R. C.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

DiMauro, L. F.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Ditmire, T.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haight, R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamoniaux, G.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Hässner, R.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Muffet, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. Phys. B 27, 5693 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kulander, K. C.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal coherence of high order harmonics,” Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal coherence of high order harmonics,” Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Marangos, J. P.

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Muffet, J. E.

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Muffet, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. Phys. B 27, 5693 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

Nabekawa, Y.

Peale, D. R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peatross, J.

Perry, M. D.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal coherence of high order harmonics,” Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

Sauerbrey, R.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Proc. SPIE 1224, 2 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. R.

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, W.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C.-G.

J. E. Muffet, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. Phys. B 27, 5693 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Wülker, C.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. B (2)

P. Salières, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, J. Phys. B 29, 4771 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Muffet, C.-G. Wahlström, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. Phys. B 27, 5693 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

J. Peatross and D. D. Meyerhofer, Phys. Rev. A 51, R906 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. G. Tisch, A. R. Smith, J. E. Muffet, M. Ciarocca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, Phys. Rev. A 49, R28 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L’Huillier, Ph. Balcou, S. Candel, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, Phys. Rev. A 46, 2778 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3979 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3776 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. E. Siegman, Proc. SPIE 1224, 2 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D (1)

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, K. S. Budil, T. Ditmire, M. D. Perry, and A. L’Huillier, Z. Phys. D 34, 107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, Ph. Antoine, and M. Lewenstein, “Study of the spatial and temporal coherence of high order harmonics,” Adv. Atom. Molec. Opt. Phys. (to be published).

A. Bouhal, P. Breger, P. Agostini, R. C. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, L. F. DiMauro, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 219; L. D. Van Woerkom, S. Evans, P. Hansch, and M. A. Walker, ibid., p. 196.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for characterization of the harmonic beam quality. Bottom left, spectrum of the characterized beam (bars), which is the result of the xenon emission spectrum, the filter transmission (open triangles), and the multilayer reflectivity (filled circles).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Knife-edge scan of the harmonic beam close to the focus and (b) differentiated profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the spot diameter as a function of the distance from the focus for three different pressures of a thick gas jet, as shown (T means Torr). The best fits in terms of Wx0 and Mx2 are shown by dotted curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of (a) Wx0 and (b) Mx2 and (c) total horizontal divergence as a function of the backing pressure for a thin jet (open symbols) and a thick jet (filled symbols).

Equations (1)

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Δxz=aWxz,Wx2z=Wx02+Mx4λ2π2Wx02z-z0x2,

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