Abstract

Ferroelectric liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (FLC SLM’s) are binary modulating devices that can be used for flexible beam steering in the microsecond range. Because they are binary, at least 60% of the light power is lost to unwanted diffraction orders, however. We suggest the use of a second FLC SLM, synchronously operating in amplitude-modulating mode, to block the unwanted orders. The proposed beam-steering method is demonstrated in a simple scanner experiment. The efficiency of the suggested beam steerer is independent of the number of steering directions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (2)

1996 (2)

B. Löfving, Appl. Opt. 35, 3097 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

K. Moriki, Y. Ohnishi, and T. Hattori, Electron. Lett. 27, 450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. O. Harris, Appl. Opt. 30, 4245 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. P.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Daneman, M.

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J.

Defosse, Y.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Farhat, N. H.

Gunning, W. J.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harris, D. O.

Hattori, T.

K. Moriki, Y. Ohnishi, and T. Hattori, Electron. Lett. 27, 450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ide, M.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, S. Morokawa, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, Opt. Commun. 138, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamiya, T.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, S. Morokawa, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, Opt. Commun. 138, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kerouédan, S.

Khoshnevisan, M.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, M-H.

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, W.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, S. Morokawa, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, Opt. Commun. 138, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagerwall, S. T.

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Gars, P.

Le Moing, C.

Löfving, B.

McAulay, A. D.

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moignard, R.

Moriki, K.

K. Moriki, Y. Ohnishi, and T. Hattori, Electron. Lett. 27, 450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Morokawa, S.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, S. Morokawa, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, Opt. Commun. 138, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. S.

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohnishi, Y.

K. Moriki, Y. Ohnishi, and T. Hattori, Electron. Lett. 27, 450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paek, E.

Prata, A.

Psaltis, D.

Solgaard, O.

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. A.

Tien, N. C.

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, M.

W. Klaus, M. Ide, S. Morokawa, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, Opt. Commun. 138, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffraction Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie, Berlin, 1997).

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffraction Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie, Berlin, 1997).

Yamaguchi, M.

Yamazaki, H.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. A. Clark and S. T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Moriki, Y. Ohnishi, and T. Hattori, Electron. Lett. 27, 450 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Klaus, M. Ide, S. Morokawa, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, Opt. Commun. 138, 151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, W. J. Gunning, and M. Khoshnevisan, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sensors Actuators A (1)

N. C. Tien, O. Solgaard, M-H. Kiang, M. Daneman, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, Sensors Actuators A 52, 76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, Diffraction Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie, Berlin, 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Suggested scanner using two FLC SLM’s. SLM1 displays binary phase gratings, and SLM2 acts as an amplitude filter, blocking all diffraction orders but one. The +1 diffraction order from the grating with the shortest period is passed, and the -1 diffraction order is shown to be blocked. Lens L2 images plB upon plD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD measured intensity on plD generated by five different phase gratings on SLM1 at different settings of the spatial filter on SLM2. All nonblocked first-order beam intensities saturate the CCD camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pixel setting of 64 of the 150 illuminated pixels of the eight binary gratings used and the corresponding calculated power in the +1 (or -1) diffraction-order beam. Light and dark areas correspond to π and 0 rad phase shifts, respectively.

Equations (3)

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Θ=w2/f1.
Φ=2×1.22λ/D.
f1=Nw1w22×1.22λ.

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