Abstract

High-extinction on–off modulators are essential for channel selection in integrated-optical sensor arrays. We report a standard SiON-technology-based electrostatically driven integrated mechano-optical waveguide on–off intensity modulator. On–off modulation is achieved by movement of an absorbing element into and out of the evanescent field of the guided mode. An extinction ratio of >37 dB at an actuation voltage of <30 V was achieved in a 6 mm×4 mm device for a wavelength of 632.8 nm. Full wafer-scale fabrication is made possible by use of chemical mechanical polishing and aligned wafer bonding.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. de Rooij and H. Fujita, eds., 1997 IEEE/LEOS, IEEJ/SAMS Conference on Optical Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997).
  2. W. Lukosz, Proc. SPIE 1793, 214 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Dangel and W. Lukosz, in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 170.
  4. G. A. Magel, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Gabathuler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 145, 258 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Pliska and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators A 41–42, 93 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Veldhuis and P. V. Lambeck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.
  9. C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Parriaux and G. J. Veldhuis, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 573 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).
  12. D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).
  13. H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, Sensors Actuators A 49, 87 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

W. Gabathuler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 145, 258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Parriaux and G. J. Veldhuis, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. J. Veldhuis and P. V. Lambeck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. A. Magel, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, Sensors Actuators A 49, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Pliska and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators A 41–42, 93 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. Lukosz, Proc. SPIE 1793, 214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albers, H.

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berenschot, J. W.

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Conrad, D.

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

R. Dangel and W. Lukosz, in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 170.

Elwenspoek, M.

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Gabathuler, W.

W. Gabathuler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 145, 258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gardeniers, J. G. E.

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Gösele, U.

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gui, C.

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Hosaka, H.

H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, Sensors Actuators A 49, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itao, K.

H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, Sensors Actuators A 49, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koster, T. M.

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Kuroda, S.

H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, Sensors Actuators A 49, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Veldhuis and P. V. Lambeck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Lukosz, W.

W. Gabathuler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 145, 258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Pliska and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators A 41–42, 93 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Proc. SPIE 1793, 214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Dangel and W. Lukosz, in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 170.

Magel, G. A.

G. A. Magel, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martini, T.

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

Pliska, P.

P. Pliska and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators A 41–42, 93 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scheerschmidt, K.

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Steinkirchner, J.

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, H.

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

Veldhuis, G. J.

O. Parriaux and G. J. Veldhuis, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 573 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Veldhuis and P. V. Lambeck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

Woinowsky-Krieger, S.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. J. Veldhuis and P. V. Lambeck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2895 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Gösele, H. Stenzel, T. Martini, J. Steinkirchner, D. Conrad, and K. Scheerschmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3614 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Gabathuler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 145, 258 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Lukosz, Proc. SPIE 1793, 214 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, Proc. SPIE 2686, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. (1)

C. Gui, H. Albers, J. G. E. Gardeniers, M. Elwenspoek, and P. V. Lambeck, Res. J. Microsyst. Technol. 3, 122 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators A (2)

H. Hosaka, K. Itao, and S. Kuroda, Sensors Actuators A 49, 87 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Pliska and W. Lukosz, Sensors Actuators A 41–42, 93 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

C. Gui, G. J. Veldhuis, T. M. Koster, P. V. Lambeck, J. W. Berenschot, J. G. E. Gardeniers, and M. Elwenspoek, in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 482.

N. de Rooij and H. Fujita, eds., 1997 IEEE/LEOS, IEEJ/SAMS Conference on Optical Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997).

R. Dangel and W. Lukosz, in Photonics in Switching, Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 170.

S. P. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of Plates and Shells, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the integrated-optical nanomechanical effect.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Attenuation of the guided mode as a function of the gap for different values of the waveguide thickness d.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Length cross section of the presented device and (b) bottom view of the mechanical wafer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Throughput versus applied voltage V. The points are the experimentally obtained results. The solid curve is the theoretical behavior.

Equations (1)

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Δ=0V2LpLoap2+ao234deff0-Δ2ELp+Lohm3,

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