Abstract

We report the observation of orientational gratings induced by the photorefractive effect in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. The photorefractive origin of the grating-induction effect is supported by the results of two-beam coupling experiments and by the possibility of erasing the grating by uniform illumination. For all the samples a stable memory effect was observed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.
  2. K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.243, 51 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Elschner and R. Macdonald, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 107 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998), and references therein; E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994), and references therein; G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994); W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and PolymersH. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).
  8. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Sutter and P. Gunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  14. G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (4)

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, Opt. Lett. 22, 1144 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Elschner and R. Macdonald, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994); W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Anderle, K.

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chidichimo, G.

G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Filpa, G.

G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Elschner, R.

R. Elschner and R. Macdonald, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

Guenther, B. D.

Gunter, P.

K. Sutter and P. Gunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.

Huang, Z.

G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.

Imbardelli, D.

G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

Khoo, I. C.

Kippelen, B.

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and PolymersH. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

Kreuzer, M.

T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Lucchetti, L.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R.

R. Elschner and R. Macdonald, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and PolymersH. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

Moerner, W. F.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994); W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nicoletta, F. P.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 22, 1226 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and PolymersH. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

Shih, M. Y.

Silence, S. M.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994); W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

Tschudi, T.

T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Vogeler, T.

T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

Wendorff, J. H.

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. M. Gibbons and S. T. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2542 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994); W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (4)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. De Filpa, Z. Huang, G. Chidichimo, and D. Imbardelli, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 304, 71 (1997), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. Vogeler, M. Kreuzer, T. Tschudi, and F. Simoni, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 419 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Elschner and R. Macdonald, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, Opt. Commun. 150, 297 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.

K. Anderle and J. H. Wendorff, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.243, 51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and PolymersH. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency versus writing intensity for the sample with E7 doped by D37 dye for a 2-s exposure time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rough model of the alignment of the droplets inside the grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam-intensity modulation by use of the TBC translation technique.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 11 Efficiency Values for PDLC Samples (Epoxy Resin–E7 with D2 or D37 Dye) at 60-W/cm2 Intensity and Λ=10 µm for s and p Writing-Beam Polarization

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ=1d/cos θlnγm-lnm+1-γ50 cm-1,
m=I10I20=1, γ=Iwith pumpIwithout pump=1.09.
I1z=I101+mm+expΓz/cos θexp-αz,
I2z=I201+m1+m exp-Γz/cos θexp-αz,
Γx=2πn1λsinφ+2πxΛ.

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