Abstract

We report precision microfabrication of fused quartz by laser ablation with a conventional UV laser for what is believed to be the first time. A high-quality micrograting structure is fabricated in fused quartz by a novel technique of laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation with a single KrF excimer laser (248 nm). The plasma generated from a metal target by laser irradiation effectively assists in ablation of the fused-quartz substrate by the same laser beam, although the laser beam is transparent to the substrate. A grating with a period of 1.06 µm is achieved by use of a phase mask. We can control the grating depth to 300 nm by changing the pulse number. This technique permits high-quality microfabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on fused quartz and related silicate materials by use of a conventional UV laser.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. M. Ephrath and E. J. Petrillo, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2282 (1992).
  2. D. Bauerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 191–207.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, and P. Simon, Appl. Phys. A 54, 763 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Tsunetomo and T. Koyama, Opt. Lett. 22, 411 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Fukushima, Y. Kanke, and T. Morishita, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6948 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation of fused quartz using fourth harmonic of Nd+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

1997 (4)

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunetomo and T. Koyama, Opt. Lett. 22, 411 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

K. Fukushima, Y. Kanke, and T. Morishita, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6948 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

L. M. Ephrath and E. J. Petrillo, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2282 (1992).

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, and P. Simon, Appl. Phys. A 54, 763 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Braren and R. Srinivasan, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bauerle, D.

D. Bauerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 191–207.
[CrossRef]

Beckley, K.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, I. W.

G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Braren, B.

B. Braren and R. Srinivasan, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. E. B.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coccia, L. G.

G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ephrath, L. M.

L. M. Ephrath and E. J. Petrillo, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2282 (1992).

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, K.

K. Fukushima, Y. Kanke, and T. Morishita, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6948 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giedl, R.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, and P. Simon, Appl. Phys. A 54, 763 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanke, Y.

K. Fukushima, Y. Kanke, and T. Morishita, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6948 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

Midorikawa, K.

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation of fused quartz using fourth harmonic of Nd+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Moore, D.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morishita, T.

K. Fukushima, Y. Kanke, and T. Morishita, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6948 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moriwaki, H.

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Petrillo, E. J.

L. M. Ephrath and E. J. Petrillo, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2282 (1992).

Rosenfeld, A.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, and P. Simon, Appl. Phys. A 54, 763 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, R.

B. Braren and R. Srinivasan, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sugioka, K.

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation of fused quartz using fourth harmonic of Nd+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Takai, H.

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsunemi, A.

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsunetomo, K.

Tyrrell, G. C.

G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, S.

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wahmer, M.

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, B.

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, and P. Simon, Appl. Phys. A 54, 763 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamanishi, T.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

York, T. H.

G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation of fused quartz using fourth harmonic of Nd+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

Appl. Phys. A (3)

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Appl. Phys. A 64, 477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Varel, D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, M. Wahmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, Appl. Phys. A 65, 367 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, B. Wolff, and P. Simon, Appl. Phys. A 54, 763 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

G. C. Tyrrell, L. G. Coccia, T. H. York, and I. W. Boyd, Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 227 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Fukushima, Y. Kanke, and T. Morishita, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6948 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. M. Ephrath and E. J. Petrillo, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2282 (1992).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

B. Braren and R. Srinivasan, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6, 537 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, A. Tsunemi, T. Sakai, H. Takai, H. Moriwaki, A. Nakamura, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, Opt. Commun. 115, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. R. Herman, K. Beckley, B. Jackson, D. Moore, T. Yamanishi, and J. Yang, Proc. SPIE 2992, 86 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation of fused quartz using fourth harmonic of Nd+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. A (to be published).

D. Bauerle, Laser Processing and Chemistry (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), pp. 191–207.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the interference of beams diffracted by a phase mask. The 0-order beam interferes with the ±1st-order diffracted beams, causing periodic light-intensity modulation at the substrate surface. Other high-order diffraction beams are neglected in the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of grating height on the number of laser pulses. The laser fluence is 2.2 J/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional (a) and Three-dimensional (b) scanning probe microscope images of the area ablated with a phase mask. The laser fluence is 1.3 J/cm2. The number of laser pulses is 40. The distance between the fused-quartz substrate and the metal target is 200 µm.

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