Abstract

The operation of a diode-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser that uses the cladding-pumping arrangement to produce high-power cw output at wavelengths near 2 µm is reported. We obtained a maximum output power of 5.4 W at a slope efficiency of 31% with respect to the launched pump power at a total optical-to-optical efficiency of 22%. The fiber-laser output wavelength was tuned between 1.880 and 2.033 µm by adjustment of the fiber length, with >4 W of power obtainable from 1.94 to 2.01 µm. Self-pulsations detected in the output from the double-clad fiber laser may indicate the presence of ion-clustering effects.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.
  2. H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.
  6. D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J. D.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Collins, R.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Engstrom, B.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Francois, P. L.

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrilovic, P.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Grubb, S. G.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.

Hanna, D. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hockney, B. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kea, D.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Laliberte, B.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Laliberte, B. M.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Boudec, P.

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Flohic, M.

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, J. R.

D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCollum, B. C.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.

Minelly, J. D.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Minns, R.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Minns, R. A.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muendel, M.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Pask, H. M.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Percival, R. M.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perry, I. R.

D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Po, H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.

Reekie, L.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, R.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Robinson, R. F.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rockney, B.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Rowley, A.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Russell, P. St. J.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, F.

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smart, R. G.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.

Stephan, G.

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townsend, J. E.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tricca, R. R.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tumminelli, R.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.

Zhang, Y.

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

Zhang, Y. H.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. Po, J. D. Cao, B. M. Laliberte, R. A. Minns, R. F. Robinson, B. H. Hockney, R. R. Tricca, and Y. H. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 29, 1500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pask, J. L. Archambault, D. C. Hanna, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, Electron. Lett. 30, 863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. D. Minelly, W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, J. E. Townsend, S. G. Grubb, and D. N. Payne, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, R. G. Smart, and A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 75, 283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, I. R. Perry, J. R. Lincoln, and J. E. Townsend, Opt. Commun. 80, 52 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

P. Le Boudec, M. Le Flohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

F. Sanchez, P. Le Boudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Muendel, B. Engstrom, D. Kea, B. Laliberte, R. Minns, R. Robinson, B. Rockney, Y. Zhang, R. Collins, P. Gavrilovic, and A. Rowley, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper PD30.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured Tm3+ absorption spectrum and diode-pump source emission spectrum. The inset shows a simplified energy-level diagram for Tm3+.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Slope efficiency of the double-clad fiber laser with respect to the launched pump power with variation in the fiber length and the fiber-cavity mirror reflectivity product R1R2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation in the fiber-laser threshold with variation in the fiber-laser cavity parameters. The inset shows a typical laser characteristic for a fiber laser with a 5.0-m fiber length with a >90% output coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured wavelength of the fiber laser for various fiber-laser cavities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured temporal response of the output from a fiber laser with a 1.58-m length of fiber and only the Fresnel reflections from each end of the fiber.

Equations (1)

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αc=N0σabsλEλdλEλdλ,

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