Abstract

Photon-number distributions for parametric fluorescence from a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier are measured with a novel self-homodyne technique. These distributions exhibit the thermal-state character predicted by theory. However, a difference between the fluorescence gain and the signal gain of the parametric amplifier is observed. We attribute this difference to a change in the signal-beam profile during the traveling-wave pulsed amplification process.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994); G. M. D’Ariano, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 52, R1801 (1995); U. Leonhardt, M. Munroe, T. Kiss, Th. Richter, and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 127, 144 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. G. Raymer, D. F. McAlister, and U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2397 (1996); D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Shapiro and A. Shakeel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 232 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Kim and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1605 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.
  9. G. M. D’Ariano, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 58, 636 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S.-K. Choi, R.-D. Li, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1564 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. M. D’Ariano, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 58, 636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Raymer, D. F. McAlister, and U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2397 (1996); D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994); G. M. D’Ariano, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 52, R1801 (1995); U. Leonhardt, M. Munroe, T. Kiss, Th. Richter, and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 127, 144 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1605 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. E.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggavarapu, D.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Breitenbach, G.

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-K.

S.-K. Choi, R.-D. Li, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.

D’Ariano, G. M.

G. M. D’Ariano, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 58, 636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994); G. M. D’Ariano, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 52, R1801 (1995); U. Leonhardt, M. Munroe, T. Kiss, Th. Richter, and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 127, 144 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.

Faridani, A.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

Kumar, P.

G. M. D’Ariano, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 58, 636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Choi, R.-D. Li, C. Kim, and P. Kumar, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Kim and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1605 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.

Leonhardt, U.

M. G. Raymer, D. F. McAlister, and U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2397 (1996); D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.-D.

Macchiavello, C.

G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994); G. M. D’Ariano, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 52, R1801 (1995); U. Leonhardt, M. Munroe, T. Kiss, Th. Richter, and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 127, 144 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marable, M. L.

M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.

McAlister, D. F.

M. G. Raymer, D. F. McAlister, and U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2397 (1996); D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, T.

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munroe, M.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paris, M. G. A.

G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994); G. M. D’Ariano, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 52, R1801 (1995); U. Leonhardt, M. Munroe, T. Kiss, Th. Richter, and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 127, 144 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. F.

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

M. G. Raymer, D. F. McAlister, and U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2397 (1996); D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiller, S.

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakeel, A.

Shapiro, J. H.

Smithey, D. T.

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasilyev, M.

G. M. D’Ariano, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 58, 636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vasilyev, M. V.

M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

G. M. D’Ariano, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. A 58, 636 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. D’Ariano, C. Macchiavello, and M. G. A. Paris, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4298 (1994); G. M. D’Ariano, U. Leonhardt, and H. Paul, Phys. Rev. A 52, R1801 (1995); U. Leonhardt, M. Munroe, T. Kiss, Th. Richter, and M. G. Raymer, Opt. Commun. 127, 144 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Raymer, D. F. McAlister, and U. Leonhardt, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2397 (1996); D. F. McAlister and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 55, R1609 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. T. Smithey, M. Beck, M. G. Raymer, and A. Faridani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1244 (1993); G. Breitenbach, T. Müller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizat, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schiller, G. Breitenbach, S. F. Pereira, T. Müller, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim and P. Kumar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1605 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. V. Vasilyev, M. L. Marable, S.-K. Choi, P. Kumar, and G. M. D’Ariano, in Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vol. 12 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 95–96.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: DBS,dichroic beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; LPF’s, low-pass filters; BPF, bandpass filter; G, amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photon-number distributions for mean-power gains of (a) gp=1 (vacuum state), (b) gp=2, and (c) gp=4. Theoretical distributions for the same mean photon numbers are also plotted. The experimental distributions in (a) and (b) are reconstructed from 80,000 samples, and that in (c) is from 320,000 samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective noise gain versus mean-power gain. Signal spot sizes are 55 µm (squares) and 40 µm (circles). The pump spot size is 28 µm in both cases. Solid curves, results of numerical calculations; dashed curve, result expected for a cw plane wave.

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