Abstract

We compared two methods for measuring large optical frequency differences: an optical frequency comb generator, which creates a large number of sidebands from a single-mode laser through electro-optic modulation, and an optical frequency interval divider chain, which divides a frequency gap successively by two until it becomes accessible to a radio-frequency counter. By locking two diode lasers to two modulation sidebands of a comb generator, 1  THz apart, and measuring this interval with a chain of four phase-locked interval dividers, we demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge the accuracy of both techniques within an experimental limit of 6.8×10-15.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, and T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 93–102.
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. R. Telle, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 15, 532 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Brothers, D. Lee, and N. Wong, Opt. Lett. 19, 245 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).
  16. Hewlet Packard Model 53132A counter with a resolution of a few millihertz within 1??s.
  17. These data were not taken into account for evaluation because the cycle-slipping detection scheme did not work properly with an extended counter gate time, as the cycle slips tend to be buried in the frequency noise.

1998 (2)

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

1994 (2)

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Brothers, D. Lee, and N. Wong, Opt. Lett. 19, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bahoura, M.

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brothers, L.

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Enami, T.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freegarde, T.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

Ghezali, S.

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goldort, V. G.

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, D. Meschede, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 15, 532 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, and T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 93–102.
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, Th. W.

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmerich, A.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hilico, L.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klementyev, V. M.

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

König, W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

Lipphardt, B.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meschede, D.

Nez, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, M. V.

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, S.

S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pachucki, K.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

Reichert, J.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, L.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakuma, E.

S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slyusarev, S.

S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, Y.

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

Timchenko, B. A.

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, M.

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Widiyatomoko, B.

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wong, N.

Zakharyash, V. F.

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zinner, G.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zondy, J. J.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

V. P. Chebotayev, V. G. Goldort, V. M. Klementyev, M. V. Nikitin, B. A. Timchenko, and V. F. Zakharyash, Appl. Phys. B 29, 63 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kourogi, B. Widiyatomoko, Y. Takeuchi, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, and M. Ohtsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 214 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. Clairon, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, S. Ghezali, S. N. Lea, and M. Bahoura, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 128 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, Opt. Commun. 117, 541 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Slyusarev, T. Ikegami, S. Ohshima, and E. Sakuma, Opt. Commun. 135, 223 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J. J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

Th. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and Th. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Huber, Th. Udem, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Kourogi, K. Pachucki, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 468 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. W. Hänsch, in The Hydrogen Atom, G. F. Bassani, M. Inguscio, and T. W. Hänsch, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 93–102.
[CrossRef]

Hewlet Packard Model 53132A counter with a resolution of a few millihertz within 1??s.

These data were not taken into account for evaluation because the cycle-slipping detection scheme did not work properly with an extended counter gate time, as the cycle slips tend to be buried in the frequency noise.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of an OFCG (OFC generator) with a four-stage OFID chain. Radio-frequency mixer converts the measured beat signal into a frequency of our choice.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

1-THz frequency interval set by the OFCG and measured with a four-stage OFID. A, with good signal-to-noise ratio of the phase-locked beat signals and a total of 1493 data points; B, with a poor signal-to-noise ratio (2043 data points).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overall result of 25 comparisons. The average value without the open-circle data points (see text) is calculated to be Δf=1059 080 599 999.9940 Hz±7.2 mHz.

Equations (1)

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Δf=1666.156 GHz+fc+fLO=1.058746 THz+16fc,

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