Abstract

A novel optical arrangement for heterodyne detection of laser-induced gratings based on the use of a phase mask for both excitation and probe beams provides phase stability and control without the need for an active stabilization scheme. The arrangement greatly simplifies the laser-induced grating experiment. The performance of the technique in both transmission and reflection geometries is illustrated through measurements of bulk and surface acoustic waves generated by picosecond laser pulses.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, Chem. Rev. 94, 157 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Fayer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1437 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Sawada and A. Harata, Appl. Phys. A 61, 263 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. R. Duggal, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2823 (1992); J. A. Rogers and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1534 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7858 (1995).
  8. S. Matsuo and T. Tahara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 636 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 604 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Bakker, S. Hunshe, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2823 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Matsuo and T. Tahara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7858 (1995).

T. Sawada and A. Harata, Appl. Phys. A 61, 263 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, Chem. Rev. 94, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. R. Duggal, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2823 (1992); J. A. Rogers and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1534 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, S. Hunshe, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2823 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. D. Fayer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1437 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 604 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

H. J. Bakker, S. Hunshe, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2823 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banet, M. J.

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. J.

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7858 (1995).

Cong, P.

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7858 (1995).

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, Chem. Rev. 94, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2823 (1992); J. A. Rogers and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1534 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Fayer, M. D.

M. D. Fayer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1437 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, M.

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Hanselman, J. B.

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harata, A.

T. Sawada and A. Harata, Appl. Phys. A 61, 263 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hunshe, S.

H. J. Bakker, S. Hunshe, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2823 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, A. G.

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, B.

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

H. J. Bakker, S. Hunshe, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2823 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logan, R.

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

S. Matsuo and T. Tahara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, Chem. Rev. 94, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Duggal, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2823 (1992); J. A. Rogers and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1534 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 604 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, Chem. Rev. 94, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Duggal, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2823 (1992); J. A. Rogers and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1534 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruhman, S.

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, T.

T. Sawada and A. Harata, Appl. Phys. A 61, 263 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N. F.

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. D.

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7858 (1995).

Tahara, T.

S. Matsuo and T. Tahara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vöhringer, P.

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williams, L. R.

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

T. Sawada and A. Harata, Appl. Phys. A 61, 263 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Rogers, M. Fuchs, M. J. Banet, J. B. Hanselman, R. Logan, and K. A. Nelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 225 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Matsuo and T. Tahara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264, 636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, Chem. Rev. 94, 157 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

D. W. Pohl, IBM J. Res. Dev. 23, 604 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. D. Fayer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1437 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. R. Duggal, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 2823 (1992); J. A. Rogers and K. A. Nelson, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1534 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (3)

P. Vöhringer and N. F. Scherer, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 2684 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chang, P. Cong, and J. D. Simon, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 7858 (1995).

S. Ruhman, L. R. Williams, A. G. Joly, B. Kohler, and K. A. Nelson, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2237 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. J. Bakker, S. Hunshe, and H. Kurz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2823 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement for heterodyne detection of laser-induced gratings in transmission geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflection mode measurements on a 0.7µm-thick nickel film on silicon. (a) Diffraction signal (with the reference beam blocked) and heterodyne signals with phase differences between the probe and the reference beams of 0° and 180°. (b) Heterodyne signals obtained with various distances L between the excitation and the probe beams on the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction signal without heterodyning and heterodyne signal obtained in transmission mode from a 1 mm-thick liquid CS2 sample.

Equations (1)

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IS=IR+ID+2IRIDcos θ,

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