Abstract

We applied phase-shifting digital holography to microscopy by deriving the complex amplitude of light scattered from microscopic three-dimensional objects through a microscope objective by video camera recording, phase-shifting analysis, and computer reconstruction. This method requires no mechanical movement and provides a flexible display and quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images. A theory of image formation and experimental verification with specimens are described.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1997 (3)

1996 (2)

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. C. W. Hyde, N. P. Barry, R. Jones, J. C. Dainty, and P. M. W. French, Opt. Lett. 20, 1331 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1984 (1)

D. A. Agard, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

R. F. van Ligten, Nature (London) 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Agard, D. A.

D. A. Agard, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Barry, N. P.

Bradley, W. S.

W. S. Bradley and T.-C. Poon, Opt. Lett. 19, 1506 (1997).

Chen, C.

Chen, Y.

Dainty, J. C.

Dilworth, D.

Doh, K. B.

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, S. C. W.

Indebetouw, G.

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Juptner, W. P. O.

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

Kreis, T. M.

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuwashima, S.

Leigh, E.

Lopes, J.

Marron, J. C.

Nakamura, T.

Poon, T.-C.

W. S. Bradley and T.-C. Poon, Opt. Lett. 19, 1506 (1997).

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J.

Schiling, B. W.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, K. S.

Shinoda, K.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.-C.

Suzuki, Y.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

van Ligten, R. F.

R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. F. van Ligten, Nature (London) 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Vossler, G.

Wu, M. H.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, T.

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. (1)

D. A. Agard, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nature (London) (1)

R. F. van Ligten, Nature (London) 211, 282 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Technol. (1)

R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the digital holography microscope. PZT, piezoelectric tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recording and reconstruction coordinates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images reconstructed at various distances Z from the CCD array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of reconstruction distances Z0 and imaging magnification m on the relative position of the object.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of lily pollen particles positioned on both sides of a coverslip. Each particle is focused in the images, which were reconstructed at different distances.

Equations (9)

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Ux=A0z0-+Ppexpiϕ0+ikz0+ikp-x022z0×exp-ikp22fexpikx-p22z1dp,
U1X,Z=-+HxUxexpikX-x22Zdx,
U1X,Z=A0z0expiϕ0+ikz0expik2X2Z+x02z0×-+Pp-+Hxexpik2x21z1+1Z×exp-ikxpz1+XZexpik2Lp2×exp-ikpx0z0dxdp,
1L=1z0+1z1-1f.
-+expik2x21z1+1Zexp-ikxpz1+XZdx=CZ,z1exp-ik21z1+1ZZp+z1Xz1+Z2,
CZ,z1=1+iπkz1Zz1+Z3/2.
U1X,Z=CZ,z1expiϕ0+ikz0×expik2X2Z+x02z0×exp-ik21z1+1Zz1Xz1+Z2-p0+p0Pp×exp-ik2p21z1+1ZZz1+Z2-1L×exp-ikpXz1+Z+x0z0dp.
Z0=z0+z1f-z0z1z0-f,
m=-X0x0=-z1+z0z0=-fz0-f.

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