Abstract

We applied phase-shifting digital holography to microscopy by deriving the complex amplitude of light scattered from microscopic three-dimensional objects through a microscope objective by video camera recording, phase-shifting analysis, and computer reconstruction. This method requires no mechanical movement and provides a flexible display and quantitative evaluation of the reconstructed images. A theory of image formation and experimental verification with specimens are described.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997

1995

S. C. W. Hyde, N. P. Barry, R. Jones, J. C. Dainty, and P. M. W. French, Opt. Lett. 20, 1331 (1995).

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

1992

1990

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

1969

R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969).

1949

D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).

Agard, D. A.

D. A. Agard, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 191 (1984).

Barry, N. P.

Bradley, W. S.

W. S. Bradley and T.-C. Poon, Opt. Lett. 19, 1506 (1997).

Chen, C.

Chen, Y.

Dainty, J. C.

Dilworth, D.

Doh, K. B.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).

French, P. M. W.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).

Hyde, S. C. W.

Indebetouw, G.

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).

Jones, R.

Juptner, W. P. O.

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).

Kato, J.

Kreis, T. M.

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).

Kuwashima, S.

Leigh, E.

Lopes, J.

Marron, J. C.

Nakamura, T.

Poon, T.-C.

W. S. Bradley and T.-C. Poon, Opt. Lett. 19, 1506 (1997).

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).

Rudd, J.

Schiling, B. W.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

Schnars, U.

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).

Schroeder, K. S.

Shinoda, K.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

Sun, P.-C.

Suzuki, Y.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

Valdmanis, J.

van Ligten, R. F.

R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969).

R. F. van Ligten, Nature (London) 211, 282 (1966).

Vossler, G.

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

Wu, M. H.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, T.

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng.

D. A. Agard, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13, 191 (1984).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature (London)

R. F. van Ligten, Nature (London) 211, 282 (1966).

Opt. Eng.

T.-C. Poon, K. B. Doh, B. W. Schiling, M. H. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).

K. B. Doh, T.-C. Poon, and G. Indebetouw, Opt. Eng. 35, 1550 (1996).

U. Schnars, T. M. Kreis, and W. P. O. Juptner, Opt. Eng. 35, 977 (1996).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Technol.

R. F. van Ligten, Opt. Technol. 1, 71 (1969).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

D. Gabor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 197, 454 (1949).

Other

T. Wilson, ed., Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).

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