Abstract

The prospects for gray-scale (or multilevel) digital holographic data storage are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A simple signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) partitioning argument shows that when SNR scales as 1 over the number of holograms squared, five gray levels (log<sub>2</sub> 5bits/pixel) would be expected to result in a 15% capacity increase over binary data pages. However, the additional signal-dependent noise sources present in practical systems create a baseline SNR that reduces both the optimal number of gray levels and the resulting gain in capacity. To implement gray-scale recording experimentally, we adapt the predistortion technique previously developed for binary page-oriented memories [Opt. Lett. 23, 289 (1998)]. Several new block-based modulation codes for decoding gray-scale data pages are introduced. User capacity is evaluated by an experimental technique using LiNbO<sub>3</sub> :Fe in the 90° geometry. Experimental results show that a balanced modulation code with three gray levels provides a 30% increase in capacity (as well as a 30% increase in readout rate) over local binary thresholding.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273(5), 70 (1995).
  2. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
  3. J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).
  4. J. F. Heanue, K. Gurkan, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 35, 2431 (1996).
  5. M. A. Neifeld and M. McDonald, Opt. Lett. 19, 1483 (1994).
  6. G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, and B. Marcus, Opt. Lett. 22, 639 (1997).
  7. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2432 (1995).
  8. G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Lett. 23, 289 (1998).
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1998

1997

1996

J. F. Heanue, K. Gurkan, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 35, 2431 (1996).

1995

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2432 (1995).

1994

1988

Ashley, J.

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2432 (1995).

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).

Brady, D.

Burr, G. W.

G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Lett. 23, 289 (1998).

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, and B. Marcus, Opt. Lett. 22, 639 (1997).

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Chang, T. Y.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).

Chou, W.-C.

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Christian, W.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).

Coufal, H.

G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Lett. 23, 289 (1998).

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, and B. Marcus, Opt. Lett. 22, 639 (1997).

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Grygier, R. K.

Gurkan, K.

J. F. Heanue, K. Gurkan, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 35, 2431 (1996).

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, K. Gurkan, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 35, 2431 (1996).

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2432 (1995).

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, K. Gurkan, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 35, 2431 (1996).

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2432 (1995).

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).

Hoffnagle, J.

Hoffnagle, J. A.

G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Lett. 23, 289 (1998).

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hong, J. H.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).

Jefferson, C. M.

G. W. Burr, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Lett. 23, 289 (1998).

G. W. Burr, J. Ashley, H. Coufal, R. K. Grygier, J. Hoffnagle, C. M. Jefferson, and B. Marcus, Opt. Lett. 22, 639 (1997).

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Marcus, B.

McDonald, M.

McMichael, I.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).

Mok, F.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273(5), 70 (1995).

Neifeld, M. A.

M. A. Neifeld and M. McDonald, Opt. Lett. 19, 1483 (1994).

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Paek, E. G.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, and K. Wagner, Appl. Opt. 27, 1752 (1988).

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273(5), 70 (1995).

Wagner, K.

Appl. Opt.

J. F. Heanue, K. Gurkan, and L. Hesselink, Appl. Opt. 35, 2431 (1996).

Appl. Opt.

G. W. Burr, W.-C. Chou, M. A. Neifeld, H. Coufal, J. A. Hoffnagle, and C. M. Jefferson, “Experimental evaluation of user capacity in holographic data storage systems,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, and K. Wagner, Appl. Opt. 27, 1752 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2432 (1995).

Opt. Eng.

J. H. Hong, I. McMichael, T. Y. Chang, W. Christian, and E. G. Paek, Opt. Eng. 34, 2193 (1995).

Opt. Lett.

Sci. Am.

D. Psaltis and F. Mok, Sci. Am. 273(5), 70 (1995).

Science

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).

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