Abstract

An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).
  2. R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).
  4. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. M. Delaney, M. R. Harris, and R. G. King, Appl. Opt. 33, 573 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. J. Tiziani and H. M. Uhde, Appl. Opt. 33, 1838 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Maly and A. Boyde, Scanning 16, 187 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997

1996

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1991

S. Kimura and T. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 30, 2143 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1978

H. O. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 27, 365 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, P. M.

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H. O.

H. O. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 27, 365 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Boyde, A.

M. Maly and A. Boyde, Scanning 16, 187 (1994).

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cavanagh, H. D.

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Corcuff, P.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, P. M.

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferreira, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, J.

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, M. R.

Jester, J. V.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, S.

King, R. G.

Lemp, M. A.

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leveque, J. L.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Maly, M.

M. Maly and A. Boyde, Scanning 16, 187 (1994).

Marom, E.

Martin, L.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mas, D.

Mendlovic, D.

New, K. C.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pawley, J. B.

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

Petroll, W. M.

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, W. H.

W. H. Steel, Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1987).

Tearney, G. J.

Tiziani, H. J.

Uhde, H. M.

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

S. Kimura and T. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 30, 2143 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

Zalevsky, Z.

Appl. Opt.

J. Electron Microsc. Tech.

J. V. Jester, P. M. Andrews, W. M. Petroll, M. A. Lemp, and H. D. Cavanagh, J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 18, 50 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

H. O. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. 27, 365 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Prog. Phys.

R. H. Webb, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 427 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scanning

M. Maly and A. Boyde, Scanning 16, 187 (1994).

K. C. New, W. M. Petroll, A. Boyde, L. Martin, P. Corcuff, J. L. Leveque, M. A. Lemp, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, Scanning 13, 367 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. H. Steel, Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1987).

T. Wilson, Confocal Microscopy (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the SECM probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the SECM system: PC, polarization controller; ADC, analog–digital converter; FFT, fast Fourier transform; TTL, transistor–transistor logic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FTS SECM image, Ix,y, of an electron microscope grid.

Equations (1)

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n=λdλ0Λ.

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