Abstract

A technique for incorporating a groove into a LiNbO3 substrate is described. Both V grooves for fiber alignment and vertical grooves for waveguide end-face formation can be fabricated with this technique. The proposed fabrication method is based on an excimer-laser ablation and a high-speed rotation saw cut for LiNbO3. The former process provides a variety of cross-sectional groove shapes by changing the ablation mask shape of LiNbO3, and the latter provides an optical-quality cutting face. The proposed fabrication method is simple and provides low-cost optical platforms not only for LiNbO3 but also for glasses, polymers, and semiconductors.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. R. A. Syms, in Advances in Integrated Optics, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, and M. Berolotti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 138.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. K. Christensen and M. Müllenborn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2772 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Srinivason, in Laser Ablation, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 107.
    [CrossRef]
  7. Th. Beuermann, H. J. Brinkmann, T. Damm, and M. Stuke, in Laser Ablation for Materials Synthesis, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.191, 37 (1990).
  8. N. Mekada, M. Seino, Y. Kubota, and H. Nakajima, Appl. Opt. 29, 5096 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Klein and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 30, 1672 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. K. Christensen and M. Müllenborn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2772 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Klein and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 30, 1672 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1978 (1)

K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bean, K. E.

K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Beuermann, Th.

Th. Beuermann, H. J. Brinkmann, T. Damm, and M. Stuke, in Laser Ablation for Materials Synthesis, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.191, 37 (1990).

Brinkmann, H. J.

Th. Beuermann, H. J. Brinkmann, T. Damm, and M. Stuke, in Laser Ablation for Materials Synthesis, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.191, 37 (1990).

Charrier, J.

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, F. K.

F. K. Christensen and M. Müllenborn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2772 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Damm, T.

Th. Beuermann, H. J. Brinkmann, T. Damm, and M. Stuke, in Laser Ablation for Materials Synthesis, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.191, 37 (1990).

Guendouz, M.

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hohmann, R.

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, P.

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P.

P. Klein and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 30, 1672 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kragl, H.

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, Y.

Le Rouzic, J.

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marheine, C.

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mekada, N.

Müllenborn, M.

F. K. Christensen and M. Müllenborn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2772 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

Neyer, A.

P. Klein and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 30, 1672 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pedrono, N.

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pompe, G.

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pott, W.

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seino, M.

Srinivason, R.

R. Srinivason, in Laser Ablation, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

Stuke, M.

Th. Beuermann, H. J. Brinkmann, T. Damm, and M. Stuke, in Laser Ablation for Materials Synthesis, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.191, 37 (1990).

Syms, R. R. A.

R. R. A. Syms, in Advances in Integrated Optics, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, and M. Berolotti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 138.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. K. Christensen and M. Müllenborn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2772 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. Kragl, R. Hohmann, C. Marheine, W. Pott, and G. Pompe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Guendouz, N. Pedrono, J. Charrier, P. Joubert, and J. Le Rouzic, Electron. Lett. 33, 1695 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Klein and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 30, 1672 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

K. E. Bean, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25, 1185 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. R. A. Syms, in Advances in Integrated Optics, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, and M. Berolotti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994), p. 138.

R. Srinivason, in Laser Ablation, J. C. Miller, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

Th. Beuermann, H. J. Brinkmann, T. Damm, and M. Stuke, in Laser Ablation for Materials Synthesis, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.191, 37 (1990).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication sequence for the LiNbO3 platform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the laser ablation apparatus for V-groove formation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of V-groove formation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LiNbO3 ablation-depth (etch) dependence on the number of laser pulses for Z-cut LiNbO3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning-electron microscope photograph of the V groove fabricated on Ti:LiNbO3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning-electron microscope photograph of the area around the waveguide end face.

Equations (2)

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Ny=νLy/V,
dy=ANy=AνLy/V,

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