Abstract

We introduce a new structural cutoff beyond which subwavelength gratings cease to behave as homogeneous media and discuss its effects on the proper selection of the sampling periods of subwavelength diffractive elements. According to this analysis, a 3λ-period blazed binary grating composed of square pillars is designed for He–Ne operation and is fabricated by etching of a TiO2 layer deposited upon a glass substrate. Its first-order measured diffraction efficiency is 12% larger than the theoretical efficiency of an ideal blazed échelette grating in glass with the same period.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

Astilean, S.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1964), Chap. 1, p. 62.

Cambril, E.

Chavel, P.

Chen, F. T.

Craighead, H. G.

de Beaucoudrey, N.

Farn, W. M.

Haidner, H.

Kipfer, P.

Lalanne, Ph.

Launois, H.

Lemercier-Lalanne, D.

Ph. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 450 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Lalanne and D. Lemercier-Lalanne, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 2063 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Miller, J. M.

Smith, R. E.

Sreibl, N.

Stork, W.

Vawter, G. A.

Warren, M. E.

Wendt, J. R.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Macmillan, New York, 1964), Chap. 1, p. 62.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crosses, phases of the transmitted zeroth order for a 487-nm-thick grating composed of a 380-nm-period array of square pillars etched in TiO2. Dotted curves, n values of all the propagating modes supported by the biperiodic structure. The uppermost curve (n varies from 1 to 2.3) corresponds to the grating effective index. Numerical results were obtained by the modal method of Ref.  10 with square truncation (17 orders are retained along each axis). Solid curve, phases of a plane wave transmitted through a 487-nm-thick homogeneous dielectric film whose refractive index is equal to the n value of the fundamental mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron micrograph of the blazed binary subwavelength grating. The horizontal period (along the x axis) is 1.9 µm, and the period in the perpendicular direction (y axis) is equal to the sampling period (380  nm). The maximum pillar aspect ratio is 4.6.

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