Abstract

We have observed that cross-polarized backscatter measured by optical coherence tomography of human skin in vivo is surprisingly strong. We identify and give evidence of its main origins: single scattering from nonspherical particles and multiple scattering by particles with sizes much larger than a wavelength. Our findings show that depolarized light scattered by dense large-diameter particles maintains a high degree of temporal coherence and that differential-polarization imaging improves contrast between particles of different sizes.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Everett, K. Schoenenberger, B. W. Colston, and L. B. Da Silva, Opt. Lett. 23, 228 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. van Zyl, H. A. Zebker, and C. Elachi, Radio Sci. 22, 529 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Dogariu, C. Kutsche, P. Likawa, and G. Boreman, Opt. Lett. 22, 585 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Ishii, T. Iwai, and T. Asakura, Opt. Rev. 4, 643 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, Opt. Lett. 20, 1356 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Dogariu, C. Kutsche, P. Likawa, and G. Boreman, Opt. Lett. 22, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishii, T. Iwai, and T. Asakura, Opt. Rev. 4, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, Opt. Lett. 22, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. J. van Zyl, H. A. Zebker, and C. Elachi, Radio Sci. 22, 529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

K. Ishii, T. Iwai, and T. Asakura, Opt. Rev. 4, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 113.

Bonner, R. F.

Boreman, G.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

De Boer, J. F.

Deuzé, J. L.

P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elachi, C.

J. J. van Zyl, H. A. Zebker, and C. Elachi, Radio Sci. 22, 529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Everett, M. J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fouquart, Y.

P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gouloub, P.

P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 113.

Ishii, K.

K. Ishii, T. Iwai, and T. Asakura, Opt. Rev. 4, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, T.

K. Ishii, T. Iwai, and T. Asakura, Opt. Rev. 4, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knüttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kutsche, C.

Lee, S. L.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Likawa, P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maret, G.

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mishchenko, M. I.

Nelson, J. S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Yadlowsky, J. M. Schmitt, and R. F. Bonner, Appl. Opt. 34, 5699 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Zyl, J. J.

J. J. van Zyl, H. A. Zebker, and C. Elachi, Radio Sci. 22, 529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. E.

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M. J.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zebker, H. A.

J. J. van Zyl, H. A. Zebker, and C. Elachi, Radio Sci. 22, 529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H. W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

P. Gouloub, J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, and Y. Fouquart, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 78 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, S. L. Lee, and K. M. Yung, Opt. Commun. 142, 203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Ishii, T. Iwai, and T. Asakura, Opt. Rev. 4, 643 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knüttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. E. Wolf and G. Maret, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2696 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radio Sci. (1)

J. J. van Zyl, H. A. Zebker, and C. Elachi, Radio Sci. 22, 529 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Puliafito, Science 254, 11781 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), p. 113.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental OCT system configured for polarization-sensitive imaging: M1–M3 mirrors; RR, retroreflector. Polarizer P is oriented at 0°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Copolarized and cross-polarized images of the nailfold region of the fifth finger of a human subject. The glycerin-coated glass plate against which the finger rested appears as a line at the top of the copolarized image. Image dimensions, 1.2 mm (width) by 0.6 mm (depth). (c) Differential-polarization images. (d) Average of 400 depth profiles extracted from the copolarized and cross-polarized images. Both profiles are normalized to the peak of the copolarized glass reflection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average of 256 depth profiles recorded from gels containing latex spheres. The sharp peaks on both ends of the profiles are reflections from the glass plates that held the gels. (a) 0.2µmdiameter spheres (1.25%); (b) 0.6µmdiameter spheres (0.625%). The profiles are normalized to the peak of the copolarized glass reflection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Depolarization ratios calculated from images of gels containing latex spheres of various sizes and concentrations. The values shown are the averages of 256 depth profiles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Copolarized and cross-polarized images of a gel containing a mixture of 0.2- and 6µmdiameter spheres (equal volume concentrations, 0.25%). Image dimensions, 0.3 mm (width) by 0.5 mm (depth).

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δlId/Id=Ex,rEy,s*Ey,rEy,s*,

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