Abstract

Ultrashort-pulse lasers are now commonly used for multiphoton microscopy, and optimizing the performance of such systems requires careful characterization of the pulses at the tight focus of the microscope objective. We solve this problem by use of a collinear geometry in frequency-resolved optical gating that uses type II second-harmonic generation and that allows the full N.A. of the microscope objective to be used. We then demonstrate the technique by measuring the intensity and the phase of a 22-fs pulse focused by a 20×, 0.4-N.A. air objective.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).
  2. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. D. Jung, F. X. Kartner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 22, 1009 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, Opt. Lett. 22, 1562 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A.-C. Tien, S. Kane, J. Squier, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1160 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

1997

1996

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A.-C. Tien, S. Kane, J. Squier, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

Brakenhoff, G. J.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Cheng, Z.

Christov, I. P.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kane, S.

Kapteyn, H. C.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kohler, B.

Krausz, F.

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

Matuschek, N.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Müller, M.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Murnane, M. M.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Scheuer, V.

Simon, U.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Spielmann, C.

Squier, J.

A.-C. Tien, S. Kane, J. Squier, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1160 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Sutter, D. H.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taft, G.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

Tien, A.-C.

Tilsch, M.

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

Wilson, K.

Wolleschensky, R.

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

Zhang, G.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1984).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, M. A. Krumbügel, J. N. Sweetser, and R. Trebino, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Müller, J. Squier, R. Wolleschensky, U. Simon, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “Dispersion pre-compensation of 15 femtosecond optical pulses for high-numerical aperature objectives,” J. Microsc. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a collinear type II SHG FROG device that is similar to an interferometric SHG FROG, except that there is a 90° polarization rotation between the two arms (achieved by placement of a λ/2 wave plate in each arm) and that the device uses a type II crystal. In this study the crystal was potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured type II SHG FROG trace of a 22-fs pulse from a Ti:sapphire oscillator taken by a 20×, 0.4-N.A. air objective. The residual fringes shown in these raw data disappear after Fourier filtering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieved intensity and phase for the type II SHG FROG trace shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured and retrieved SHG autocorrelations. (b) Measured and retrieved spectra. Note that the small subpeak in the measured spectrum at 740 nm is due to mode-hopping cw lasing in the Ti:sapphire oscillator and should not appear in the retrieved spectrum because the nonlinearity of the FROG device is insensitive to low-power signals. (c) Measured frequency marginal of the FROG trace and the autoconvolution of the measured spectrum (Convolved). Again note that the only significant deviation is the wing of the autoconvolution near 370 nm that is produced by the cw subpeak.

Equations (2)

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IFROGω,τ=-Esigtexp-iωτdt2.
Esigt,τ=EtEt-τ,

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