Abstract

We present experimental evidence demonstrating that the photorefractive-index change responsible for the formation of photorefractive spatial screening solitons and coherent collisions between them is primarily isotropic in nature, even though the photorefractive medium is inherently anisotropic.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 706 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. S. Garcia-Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vyslouokh, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo-Martinez, and G. E. Torres-Cisneros, Opt. Lett. 22, 154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Soliton “birth” was predicted by A. W. Snyder and A. P. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 18, 482 (1993) and recently observed by W. Krolikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, Opt. Lett. 22, 369 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995); A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, Europhys. Lett. 36, 419 (1996); B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Degasperis, M. Segev, and S. Trillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3078 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, M. Saffman, M. Belic, and A. Stepken, paper WMD4 presented at the Workshop on Novel Solitons and Nonlinear Periodic Structures, March 29–30, 1998, Victoria, Canada.

1997

1996

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995); A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, Europhys. Lett. 36, 419 (1996); B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Degasperis, M. Segev, and S. Trillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soliton “birth” was predicted by A. W. Snyder and A. P. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 18, 482 (1993) and recently observed by W. Krolikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, Opt. Lett. 22, 369 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995); A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, Europhys. Lett. 36, 419 (1996); B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Degasperis, M. Segev, and S. Trillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashaw, M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belic, M.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, M. Saffman, M. Belic, and A. Stepken, paper WMD4 presented at the Workshop on Novel Solitons and Nonlinear Periodic Structures, March 29–30, 1998, Victoria, Canada.

Carvalho, M. I.

Chen, Z.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Quirino, G. S.

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

G. S. Garcia-Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vyslouokh, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo-Martinez, and G. E. Torres-Cisneros, Opt. Lett. 22, 154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, M. Saffman, M. Belic, and A. Stepken, paper WMD4 presented at the Workshop on Novel Solitons and Nonlinear Periodic Structures, March 29–30, 1998, Victoria, Canada.

Lugo-Martinez, G.

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, M. Saffman, M. Belic, and A. Stepken, paper WMD4 presented at the Workshop on Novel Solitons and Nonlinear Periodic Structures, March 29–30, 1998, Victoria, Canada.

Marquez-Aguilar, P. A.

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meng, H.

Ming, H.

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saffman, M.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, M. Saffman, M. Belic, and A. Stepken, paper WMD4 presented at the Workshop on Novel Solitons and Nonlinear Periodic Structures, March 29–30, 1998, Victoria, Canada.

Salamo, G.

H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.

Segev, M.

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, A. P.

Shih, M.

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Meng, G. Salamo, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 21, 1538 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shultz, J. L.

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

Stepanov, S.

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

Stepken, A.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, M. Saffman, M. Belic, and A. Stepken, paper WMD4 presented at the Workshop on Novel Solitons and Nonlinear Periodic Structures, March 29–30, 1998, Victoria, Canada.

Torres-Cisneros, G. E.

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, G. Salamo, M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V.

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vyslouokh, V. A.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. Bashaw, Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457 (1994); M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, J. L. Shultz, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, E. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533 (1993); Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520 (1995); A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, Europhys. Lett. 36, 419 (1996); B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, A. Degasperis, M. Segev, and S. Trillo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3078 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Steady-state self-focusing effects in biased photorefractive media were first observed by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Photorefractive screening solitons were observed by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995); M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. Garrett, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, g, Individual 11µm-diameter input beam profiles. b, h, Individual 50µm-wide diffracted output beam profiles in the horizontal or the vertical plane. c, i, Separately launched 11µm-wide soliton profiles at the exit face in the horizontal or the vertical plane. d and e, j and k, 11µm-wide single output beam and profile resulting from the collision between the beams colliding in the d, e, horizontal or the j, k, vertical plane when the phase between them is 0°. f, l, The two 11µm beams after collision in the horizontal or the vertical plane when the phase between them is 180°. The soliton/background intensity ratio is 10 in all cases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Increment in the scaled separation (actual separation divided by the 11µm beam diameter, Δx) that is due to repulsion between the two solitons measured at the exit face of the crystal as a function of the scaled initial separation at the entrance face. The collision is observed to be identical in the vertical and the horizontal planes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Soliton existence curve. When the individual solitons are simultaneously launched and collide, they produce single 2-D solitons with parameters at another location on the existence curve.

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