Abstract

A new technique of laser-assisted single-step chemical etching for diffractive microlens fabrication upon high-energy-beam sensitive glass is reported. Laser direct writing with calibrated writing parameters results in gray-level mask patterns upon the ion-exchanged layer of the glass. The transmittance-dependent chemical etching upon the glass is then effectively utilized to yield suitable surface relief structures for multiple-phase-level diffractive optical elements. The one-step nonphotolithographic fabrication technique has been successfully applied for the realization of an eight-phase-level diffractive microlens.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. Su and M. R. Wang, Proc. SPIE 2891, 82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

E. J. Gratrix and C. B. Zarowin, Proc. SPIE 1544, 238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1972 (1)

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, and E. Spitz, Opt. Commun. 5, 232 (1972).
[CrossRef]

d’Auria, L.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, and E. Spitz, Opt. Commun. 5, 232 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

W. Däschner, P. Long, R. Stein, C. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 36, 4675 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Däschner, M. Larsson, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 34, 2634 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ehbets, P.

Gale, M. T.

Gratrix, E. J.

E. J. Gratrix and C. B. Zarowin, Proc. SPIE 1544, 238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Huignard, J. P.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, and E. Spitz, Opt. Commun. 5, 232 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Lang, G. K.

Larsson, M.

W. Däschner, M. Larsson, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 34, 2634 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

W. Däschner, P. Long, R. Stein, C. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 36, 4675 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Däschner, M. Larsson, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 34, 2634 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Long, P.

O’Shea, D. C.

Prongué, D.

Raynor, J. M.

Rossi, M.

Roy, A. M.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, and E. Spitz, Opt. Commun. 5, 232 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, H.

Spitz, E.

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, and E. Spitz, Opt. Commun. 5, 232 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R.

Su, H.

H. Su and M. R. Wang, Proc. SPIE 2891, 82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suleski, T. J.

Walker, S. J.

Wang, M. R.

H. Su and M. R. Wang, Proc. SPIE 2891, 82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

W. Däschner, P. Long, R. Stein, C. Wu, and S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 36, 4675 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glasses,” U.S. patent5,078,771 (January7, 1992).

Zarowin, C. B.

E. J. Gratrix and C. B. Zarowin, Proc. SPIE 1544, 238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. d’Auria, J. P. Huignard, A. M. Roy, and E. Spitz, Opt. Commun. 5, 232 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Su and M. R. Wang, Proc. SPIE 2891, 82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Gratrix and C. B. Zarowin, Proc. SPIE 1544, 238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glasses,” U.S. patent5,078,771 (January7, 1992).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of DOE fabrication based on the gray-level transmittance-dependent etching rate in diluted hydrofluoric acid upon high-energy-beam sensitive glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser-written transmittance at 640-nm wavelength as a function of focused laser writing power at a constant writing speed of 30 µm/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative etching depth upon glass as a function of transmittance at 640-nm wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Laser-generated eight-level diffractive microlens mask before etching. (b) Microphotograph of the reflective illuminated etched multiple-phase-level diffractive microlens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured optical intensity distribution of the focal spot of the diffractive microlens.

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