Abstract

Measurement slight amounts of absorption of light with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit has been experimentally demonstrated. The quantum-correlated twin beams used in the measurement were generated from a nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator including an α-cut KTiOPO4 crystal pumped by an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The noise in the intensity difference between the twin beams was reduced by 88% below the standard quantum limit (SQL). The signal-to-noise ratio was improved by 7  dB with respect to the SQL of the total light employed in the experiment and by 4  dB with respect to that of the signal light.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Giacobino and C. Fabre, eds., special issue on quantum noise reduction in optical systems:?experiments, Appl. Phys. B 55, 210–216, 250–265 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Kasai, J. R. Gao, and C. Fabre, Europhys. Lett. 40, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, H. Wang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Appl. Opt. 34, 1519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Giacobino and C. Fabre, eds., special issue on quantum noise reduction in optical systems:?experiments, Appl. Phys. B 55, 210–216, 250–265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986); L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Breitenbach, G.

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Camy, G.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckardt, R. C.

Fabre, C.

K. Kasai, J. R. Gao, and C. Fabre, Europhys. Lett. 40, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

K. Kasai, J. R. Gao, and C. Fabre, Europhys. Lett. 40, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, H. Wang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Appl. Opt. 34, 1519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986); L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heidmann, A.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasai, K.

K. Kasai, J. R. Gao, and C. Fabre, Europhys. Lett. 40, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasi, K.

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986); L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maître, A.

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muller, T.

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nabors, C. D.

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Q.

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

Peng, K. C.

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, H. Wang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Appl. Opt. 34, 1519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

Pereira, S. F.

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poizet, J.-Ph.

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiller, S.

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Souto-Ribeiro, P. H.

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, H. Wang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Appl. Opt. 34, 1519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

Wong, N. C.

Wu, H.

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986); L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.-A.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986); L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 13, 476 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, C. D.

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Gao, H. Wang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, Appl. Opt. 34, 1519 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

Xue, C. Y.

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

Yang, S. T.

Zhang, Y.

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, J. R. Gao, and K. C. Peng, Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 1144 (1996); Q. Pan, Y. Zhang, T. C. Zhang, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, J. Phys. D 30, 1588 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Giacobino and C. Fabre, eds., special issue on quantum noise reduction in optical systems:?experiments, Appl. Phys. B 55, 210–216, 250–265 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

K. Kasai, J. R. Gao, and C. Fabre, Europhys. Lett. 40, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

G. Breitenbach, T. Muller, S. F. Pereira, J.-Ph. Poizet, S. Schiller, and J. Mlynek, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Wong and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1527 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. D. Nabors and R. M. Shelby, Phys. Rev. A 42, 556 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987); P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. L. Hall, and H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986); L.-A. Wu, M. Xiao, and H. J. Kimble, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1465 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, and G. Camy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987); J. Mertz, T. Debuisschert, A. Heidmarn, C. Fabre, and E. Giacobino, Opt. Lett. 16, 1234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. C. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Wang, C. D. Xie, Q. Pan, C. Y. Xue, Y. Zhang, and K. C. Peng, in Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Quantum Communication and Measurement (Plenum, New York, 1997), p. 445.

C. Fabre, K. Kasi, J. R. Gao, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and P. H. Souto-Ribeiro, presented at the Fifth Conference, Balatanfuce, Hungary, May 1997;P. H. Souto Ribeiro, C. Schwob, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Opt. Lett. 22, 1893 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experiment for twin-beam generation and weak absorption measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Noise power spectrum of the intensity difference between the twin beams. Resolution bandwidth, 30  kHz; video bandwidth, 3  kHz. (a) Shot-noise limit of the total intensity of the twin beams, (b) noise power spectrum of the intensity difference between the twin beams, (c) electronic noise power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of sub-shot-noise weak absorption. Resolution bandwidth, 3  kHz; video bandwidth, 3  kHz. (a) Shot-noise limit of the total intensity of the twin beams, (b) noise power spectrum of the intensity difference between the twin beams with the absorption information, (c) electronic noise power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of sub-shot-noise weak absorption. Resolution bandwidth, 3  kHz; video bandwidth, 3  kHz. (a) Shot-noise limit of the total intensity of the signal beam, (b) noise power spectrum of the intensity difference between the twin beams with the absorption information, (c) electronic noise power.

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