Abstract

We describe the generation of subpicosecond electrical pulses by optical rectification of ultrashort optical pulses. The electrical pulses are generated by the second-order nonlinear response of a LiTaO3 crystal bonded to a coplanar transmission line. A bipolar temporal waveform with a width of 875  fs was measured after a propagation distance of 175 µm. This pulse width was limited by the response time of the photoconductive sampler. We observed both broadening and amplitude reduction in the temporal waveform owing to propagation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. Auston, in Ultrashort Laser Pulses:?Generation and Applications, W. Kaiser, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 183, and references therein.
  3. D. Krökel, D. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. W. van der Weide, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 881 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. 143, 569 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 79 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. F. Ma and X.-C. Zhang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1175 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. W. van der Weide, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 881 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

D. Krökel, D. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. 143, 569 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, in Ultrashort Laser Pulses:?Generation and Applications, W. Kaiser, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 183, and references therein.

Bass, M.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. C.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

English, J.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Franken, P. A.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Krökel, D. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Halbout, J.-M.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. E.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ketchen, M. B.

D. Krökel, D. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krökel, D.

D. Krökel, D. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. P.

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. D.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

van der Weide, D. W.

D. W. van der Weide, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 881 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. F.

J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. 143, 569 (1966).
[CrossRef]

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weinreich, G.

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

X. F. Ma and X.-C. Zhang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1175 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

See, for example, R. Sprik, I. N. Duling, C.-C. Chi, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 548 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Krökel, D. Grischkowsky, and M. B. Ketchen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1046 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. W. van der Weide, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 881 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston and A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 398 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Ketchen, D. Grischkowsky, T. C. Chen, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, N. J. Halas, J.-M. Halbout, J. A. Kash, and G. P. Li, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 751 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C.-C. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 460 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, J. E. Henry, K. W. Goossen, K. D. Li, B. Tell, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, A. C. Gossard, J. English, and S. Schmitt-Rink, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2586 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

M. van Exter and D. Grischkowsky, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward, Phys. Rev. 143, 569 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, and G. Weinreich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. H. Auston, in Ultrashort Laser Pulses:?Generation and Applications, W. Kaiser, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), p. 183, and references therein.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the device with a coplanar strip-line transmission line and an integrated photoconductive switch. A LiTaO3 crystal is bonded onto the device. Points A–C represent the positions of the pump beam used in the experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal waveform observed with the excitation beam at (a) point A (175 µm from the sampling gap), (b) point B (1050 µm from the sampling gap), and (c) point C (outside the transmission line structure). The waveforms are offset from the origin for clarity. Additionally, the relative time delay between the waveforms is arbitrary.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Expanded view of the waveforms from curves (a) (solid trace) and (b) (dashed trace) of Fig.  2. The width of the positive lobe of curve (a) is 875  fs and that of curve (b) is 1.6  ps. The relative time delay between the waveforms is arbitrary.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak voltage versus average optical power in the pump beam. The distance from the electrical generation site to the sampling gap is 350 µm. The solid line represents the best linear fit.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PNLt=-n3r332cIoptt,
Vt=Z0it=Z0dqtdt=-αZ0n3r332cdIopttdttml,

Metrics