Abstract

Femtosecond mid-infrared laser pulses that are continuously tunable in the wavelength range from 9 to 18 µm are demonstrated. These nearly bandwidth-limited pulses are generated by phase-matched difference-frequency mixing within the broad spectrum of 20-fs pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser in GaSe. A direct determination of the pulse duration at 11.5 µm gives a value of 140  fs. The average mid-infrared power of 1 µW is 100 times greater than that for infrared generation by non-phase-matched optical rectification.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (5)

G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, Opt. Commun. 119, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. X. de Barros, R. S. Miranda, T. M. Jedju, and P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 20, 480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Ashworth, M. Joschko, M. Woerner, E. Riedle, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 20, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995); K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, Opt. Commun. 114, 333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, Opt. Commun. 113, 99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Lohner, P. Kruck, and W. W. Rühle, Appl. Phys. B 59, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Seifert, V. Petrov, and M. Woerner, Opt. Lett. 19, 2009 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Elsaesser and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 16, 411 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ashworth, S. H.

Bayanov, I. M.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, Opt. Commun. 113, 99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

Bonvalet, A.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J. L. Martin, Opt. Lett. 21, 964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cavallari, M.

G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, Opt. Commun. 119, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, Opt. Commun. 113, 99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Barros, M. R. X.

Driscoll, T. J.

G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, Opt. Commun. 119, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ehret, S.

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

S. H. Ashworth, M. Joschko, M. Woerner, E. Riedle, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 20, 2120 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Elsaesser and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 16, 411 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gale, G. M.

G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, Opt. Commun. 119, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, Opt. Commun. 119, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, P.

Heinz, P.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, Opt. Commun. 113, 99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jedju, T. M.

Joffre, M.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J. L. Martin, Opt. Lett. 21, 964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

Kaiser, W.

M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kruck, P.

A. Lohner, P. Kruck, and W. W. Rühle, Appl. Phys. B 59, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995); K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, Opt. Commun. 114, 333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lauterwasser, C.

Lohner, A.

A. Lohner, P. Kruck, and W. W. Rühle, Appl. Phys. B 59, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. L.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J. L. Martin, Opt. Lett. 21, 964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

M. Joffre, A. Bonvalet, A. Migus, and J. L. Martin, Opt. Lett. 21, 964 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, R. S.

Nuss, M. C.

Petrov, V.

Reed, M. K.

M. K. Reed and M. K. Steiner-Shepard, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Knox, and W. Zinth (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 40.
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

Rota, L.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rühle, W. W.

A. Lohner, P. Kruck, and W. W. Rühle, Appl. Phys. B 59, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, H.

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, F.

Seilmeier, A.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, Opt. Commun. 113, 99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner-Shepard, M. K.

M. K. Reed and M. K. Steiner-Shepard, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Knox, and W. Zinth (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 40.
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995); K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, Opt. Commun. 114, 333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A.

A. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Zinth, W.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Lohner, P. Kruck, and W. W. Rühle, Appl. Phys. B 59, 211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ehret and H. Schneider, Appl. Phys. B 66, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1276 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, Opt. Commun. 118, 375 (1995); K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, Opt. Commun. 114, 333 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, Opt. Commun. 119, 159 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, Opt. Commun. 113, 99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. K. Reed and M. K. Steiner-Shepard, in Ultrafast Phenomena X, P. F. Barbara, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Knox, and W. Zinth (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 40.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Interferometric electric field correlation of femtosecond mid-infrared pulses generated by phase-matched difference-frequency mixing in GaSe. The signal is plotted as a function of delay time between the pulse and its replica. Inset, electric field autocorrelation of a pulse generated by non-phase-matched optical rectification at the surface of a GaSe crystal. (b) Normalized spectra of the pulses in (a). Solid curve, optical rectification; dashed curve, difference-frequency mixing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized spectra of femtosecond mid-infrared pulses continuously tunable from 9 to 18 µm. The spectra are derived from electric field correlations. Inset, tuning curve of GaSe. The (external) phase-matching angle is plotted versus the center wavelength of the pulses (filled circles). Dashed curve, calculated phase-matching curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transient absorption of germanium at a probe wavelength of 11.5 µm after excitation by a 20-fs pulse at 830  nm. The change of absorption ΔA=-lnT/T0 is plotted as a function of delay time between the near-infrared pump and the mid-infrared probe [filled circles, transmission of the sample before (T0) and after T excitation]. The data follow the time-integrated cross correlation of the pump and the probe, giving a duration of 140  fs for the mid-infrared pulses. Solid curve, fit with the time-integrated cross-correlation response.

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