Abstract

We demonstrate a novel application of a wavelength-swept fiber laser to fiber Bragg grating sensor-array interrogation. The laser provides high signal powers of >3 mW with <0.1-nm spectral resolution over a 28-nm wavelength span. Using time-interval counting, we demonstrate static–dynamic strain measurements with a resolution of 0.47 µ rms at a sampling rate of 250  Hz.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 18, 1370 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 700 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. J. Rao, D. A. Jackson, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Lett. 21, 683 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. L. Dennis, M. A. Putnam, J. U. Kang, T.-E. Tsai, I. N. Duling, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 1362 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Yun and B. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper PD2; a preliminary part of the present study was presented at this meeting.
  10. P. F. Wysocki, M. J. Digonnet, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 15, 879 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Zorabedian, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 62 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

1997 (3)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dennis, M. A. Putnam, J. U. Kang, T.-E. Tsai, I. N. Duling, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

P. Zorabedian, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 18, 1370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Berkoff, T. A.

Chappell, L. M.

T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

Cheo, P. K.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corey, T.

T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

Culverhouse, D. O.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

Digonnet, M. J.

Duling, I. N.

Friebele, E. J.

M. L. Dennis, M. A. Putnam, J. U. Kang, T.-E. Tsai, I. N. Duling, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, H.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guillermo, N. J.

T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

Huang, S. Y.

T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

Jackson, D. A.

Kang, J. U.

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 18, 1370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Wysocki, M. J. Digonnet, and B. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 15, 879 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun and B. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper PD2; a preliminary part of the present study was presented at this meeting.

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

Melle, S. M.

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 18, 1370 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dennis, M. A. Putnam, J. U. Kang, T.-E. Tsai, I. N. Duling, and E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 22, 1362 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Reekie, L.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.-E.

Wysocki, P. F.

Xu, M. G.

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun and B. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper PD2; a preliminary part of the present study was presented at this meeting.

Zhang, L.

Zorabedian, P.

P. Zorabedian, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. G. Xu, H. Geiger, J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and J. P. Dakin, Electron. Lett. 29, 1510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

S. H. Yun, D. J. Richardson, D. O. Culverhouse, and B. Y. Kim, IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, and R. M. Measures, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. D. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, and P. K. Cheo, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 700 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zorabedian, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 62 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. W. Morey, G. Meltz, and W. H. Glenn, Proc. SPIE 1169, 98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. H. Yun and B. Y. Kim, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), postdeadline paper PD2; a preliminary part of the present study was presented at this meeting.

T. Corey, L. M. Chappell, N. J. Guillermo, S. Y. Huang, and R. M. Measures, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper OWC17.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for (a) the wavelength-swept fiber laser and (b) the grating sensor array and signal processor. EDF, erbium-doped fiber; PC, polarization controller; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Triangular modulation signal (upper trace) and WSFL output seen on an oscilloscope. (b)  Peak-hold optical spectrum. GND, electrical ground level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time-domain reflection signal of the WSFL output from the gratings. (b)  Reflection spectrum of the gratings measured with an amplified spontaneous emission erbium-fiber source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured time difference as a function of strain: (a)  τ1-τ0, (b)  τ2-τ0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured time difference in the response of grating λ2 to a square-modulated strain.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FFT spectrum of the time-interval measurement data for a 100-Hz dynamic strain.

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