Abstract

We describe a novel whole-field fluorescence lifetime imaging system, based on a time-gated image intensifier and a solid-state laser oscillator–amplifier, that images lifetime differences of less than 10 ps. This system was successfully applied to discrimination between biological tissue constituents.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. Lakowicz, ed., Techniques, Vol. 1 of Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1991).
  2. H. Szmacinski, J. R. Lakowicz, and M. L. Johnson, Methods Enzymol. 240, 723 (1994).
  3. R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Opt. Eng. 32, 320 (1993).
  4. A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).
  5. K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).
  6. R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Van der Poel, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 20, 2312 (1995).
  7. The shorter fluorescence lifetime that we reported in Ref. 5 for Coumarin 314 was measured with a tightly focused pump beam that resulted in significant stimulated emission. For this measurement we reduced the pump intensity and eliminated this artifact. We are unaware of any published value for this lifetime.
  8. W. Sibbett and J. R. Taylor, J. Lumin. 28, 367 (1983).
  9. B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).
  10. S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

1995

1994

H. Szmacinski, J. R. Lakowicz, and M. L. Johnson, Methods Enzymol. 240, 723 (1994).

1984

S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

1983

W. Sibbett and J. R. Taylor, J. Lumin. 28, 367 (1983).

Alfano, R. R.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).

Barry, N. P.

Bencsath, F. A.

S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

Botchway, S.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Cerami, A.

S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Opt. Eng. 32, 320 (1993).

Dainty, J. C.

K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).

Das, B. B.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).

Dowling, K.

K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).

French, P. M. W.

R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Van der Poel, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 20, 2312 (1995).

K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).

Hares, J. D.

K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).

Hyde, S. C. W.

R. Mellish, N. P. Barry, S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Van der Poel, and A. Valster, Opt. Lett. 20, 2312 (1995).

K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).

Johnson, M. L.

H. Szmacinski, J. R. Lakowicz, and M. L. Johnson, Methods Enzymol. 240, 723 (1994).

Jones, R.

Lakowicz, J. R.

H. Szmacinski, J. R. Lakowicz, and M. L. Johnson, Methods Enzymol. 240, 723 (1994).

Liu, F.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).

MacRobert, A. J.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Mellish, R.

O'Neill, P.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Ostler, R. B.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Parker, A. W.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Phillips, D.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Pongor, S.

S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

Scully, A. D.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

Sibbett, W.

W. Sibbett and J. R. Taylor, J. Lumin. 28, 367 (1983).

Szmacinski, H.

H. Szmacinski, J. R. Lakowicz, and M. L. Johnson, Methods Enzymol. 240, 723 (1994).

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Opt. Eng. 32, 320 (1993).

Taylor, J. R.

Ulrich, P. C.

S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Opt. Eng. 32, 320 (1993).

Valster, A.

Van der Poel, C. J.

J. Fluoresc.

A. D. Scully, A. J. MacRobert, S. Botchway, P. O’Neill, A. W. Parker, R. B. Ostler, and D. Phillips, J. Fluoresc. 6, 119 (1996).

J. Lumin.

W. Sibbett and J. R. Taylor, J. Lumin. 28, 367 (1983).

Methods Enzymol.

H. Szmacinski, J. R. Lakowicz, and M. L. Johnson, Methods Enzymol. 240, 723 (1994).

Opt. Commun.

K. Dowling, S. C. W. Hyde, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, and J. D. Hares, Opt. Commun. 135, 27 (1997).

Opt. Eng.

R. Cubeddu, P. Taroni, and G. Valentini, Opt. Eng. 32, 320 (1993).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B

S. Pongor, P. C. Ulrich, F. A. Bencsath, and A. Cerami, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA Sec. B 81, 2684 (1984).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

B. B. Das, F. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 227 (1997).

Vol. 1 of Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

J. R. Lakowicz, ed., Techniques, Vol. 1 of Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1991).

Other

The shorter fluorescence lifetime that we reported in Ref. 5 for Coumarin 314 was measured with a tightly focused pump beam that resulted in significant stimulated emission. For this measurement we reduced the pump intensity and eliminated this artifact. We are unaware of any published value for this lifetime.

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