Abstract

We introduce a synthetic-imaging technique that can be applied to correct anisoplanatic images degraded by atmospheric turbulence. This method is based on local image-quality analysis applied to a large set of short-exposure images and can be considered a generalization of the frame-selection technique. Experimental results obtained for atmospheric data demonstrate the efficiency of the synthetic-imaging technique in improving image quality.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
  2. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).
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  4. M. C. Roggemann, C. A. Stoudt, and B. M. Welsh, Opt. Eng. 33, 3254 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Streible, Opt. Commun. 49, 6 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Johnston and B. M. Welsh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 394 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Fried, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 52 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. A. Buffington, F. S. Crawford, R. A. Muller, A. J. Schwemin, and R. G. Smits, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 298 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, and D. G. Voelz, Appl. Opt. 36, 3319 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, and D. G. Voelz, Appl. Opt. 36, 3319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. C. Roggemann, C. A. Stoudt, and B. M. Welsh, Opt. Eng. 33, 3254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Johnston and B. M. Welsh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Charnotskii, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 492 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1988

1984

N. Streible, Opt. Commun. 49, 6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1979

1977

1974

K. T. Knox and B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, G. R.

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buffington, A.

Carhart, G. W.

Charnotskii, M. I.

Crawford, F. S.

Dainty, J. C.

Dou, R.

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

Fried, D. L.

Johnston, D. C.

Knox, K. T.

K. T. Knox and B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. A.

Paxman, R. G.

Pruidze, D. V.

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, and D. G. Voelz, Appl. Opt. 36, 3319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricklin, J. C.

M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, and D. G. Voelz, Appl. Opt. 36, 3319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann, C. A. Stoudt, and B. M. Welsh, Opt. Eng. 33, 3254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

Schulz, T. J.

Schwemin, A. J.

Sivokon, V. P.

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smits, R. G.

Stoudt, C. A.

M. C. Roggemann, C. A. Stoudt, and B. M. Welsh, Opt. Eng. 33, 3254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Streible, N.

N. Streible, Opt. Commun. 49, 6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. J.

K. T. Knox and B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

Voelz, D. G.

Vorontsov, M. A.

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vorontsov, G. W. Carhart, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, and D. G. Voelz, Appl. Opt. 36, 3319 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggemann, C. A. Stoudt, and B. M. Welsh, Opt. Eng. 33, 3254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Johnston and B. M. Welsh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.

J. M. Beckers, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

K. T. Knox and B. J. Thompson, Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

N. Streible, Opt. Commun. 49, 6 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. C. Roggemann, C. A. Stoudt, and B. M. Welsh, Opt. Eng. 33, 3254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

R. Dou, D. V. Pruidze, J. C. Ricklin, V. P. Sivokon, and M. A. Vorontsov, Proc. SPIE 3125, 339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. C. Roggemann and B. M. Welsh, Imaging through Turbulence (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimentally obtained images of a–c, an antenna and d–f, a building: a, d, Long-exposure (average) images; b, f, short-exposure image frames. The best frames (b and e) correspond to the maximum value of metric Jd in Eqs.  (5); the worst frames (c and f) correspond to the minimum value of Jd.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution curves (normalized image-quality metrics Jd and JdS versus number of short-exposure image frames n) and a, b, synthetic images of the antenna: a, the best and b, average synthetic-image frames; J˜d=Jd-Jdw/Jd and J˜dS=JdS-Jdw/Jd, where Jdw and Jd are image-quality metric values for the worst Jdw and averaged (long-exposure) Jd image frames. Equation  (3) parameters are γ=25, d=0.078a, Δt=1, and μ=0. The arrow in a indicates a local image-region shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution curves and a, b, synthetic images for the building image: a, the best and b, average synthetic-image frames. Equation  (3) parameters are γ=25, d=0.1a, Δt=1, and μ=0.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J=QIr2d2r,
Jr=QIr2ρr-rd2r,
dISr, tdt=γΔr, tn=1Nmt-tnIr, tn-ISr, t+μISr, t,
Δr, t=Jr, tn-JSr, t for Jr, tn-JSr, t>0, Δr, t=0 otherwise,
Jd=Id2rd2r, Jr=Id2rρr-rd2r,

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