Abstract

The observation of an atomic wave packet by use of a coherent, nonlinear-optical process is reported. Wave packets formed in K or Rb vapor by two-photon excitation of ns and n-2d states (n=8 for K; n=11, 12 for Rb) with red 620-nm, 80–100-fs pulses were detected by four-wave mixing in pump-probe experiments. The temporal behavior of the wave packet is observed by monitoring the coherent UV radiation generated near the alkali mp2P  2S1/2 (7m12 for Rb; 5m7 for K) resonance transitions when a probe pulse is scattered by the wave packet established by the earlier (identical) pump pulse. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the UV emission are well described by axially phase-matched four-wave mixing, and all the prominent frequency components of the wave packets are associated with energy differences between pairs of excited states for which Δl=0 or Δl=2. These results demonstrate that the wave packet modulates χ3 of the medium, thus rendering the wave packet detectable.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Parker and C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 716 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. Alber, H. Ritsch, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1058 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6672 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels (U.S.??Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971), Vol. I.
  7. D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. A. Moore, W. R. Garrett, and M. G. Payne, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3692 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. The energy and momentum constraints are ?s=2?p-?i and ns?skˆs=2np?pkˆp-ni?ikˆi, respectively, where s, p, and i denote parameters associated with the signal, pump, and idler, respectively, ? is the frequency, kˆ represents a wave vector, and n is the index of refraction.
  10. M.-H. Lu and Y.-M. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 54, 288 (1992).
    [Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M.-H. Lu and Y.-M. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 54, 288 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

M. A. Moore, W. R. Garrett, and M. G. Payne, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3692 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6672 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

J. Parker and C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 716 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Alber, H. Ritsch, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1058 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

Alber, G.

G. Alber, H. Ritsch, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1058 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloom, D. M.

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bühler, B.

T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dantus, M.

M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6672 (1988).
[Crossref]

Garrett, W. R.

M. A. Moore, W. R. Garrett, and M. G. Payne, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3692 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. R.

R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-M.

M.-H. Lu and Y.-M. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 54, 288 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu and Y.-M. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 54, 288 (1992).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels (U.S.??Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971), Vol. I.

Moore, M. A.

M. A. Moore, W. R. Garrett, and M. G. Payne, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3692 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, J.

J. Parker and C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 716 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payne, M. G.

M. A. Moore, W. R. Garrett, and M. G. Payne, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3692 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raman, C. S.

R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritsch, H.

G. Alber, H. Ritsch, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1058 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosker, M. J.

M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6672 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schumacher, D. W.

R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroud, C. R.

J. Parker and C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 716 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thalweiser, R.

T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yardley, J. T.

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

Young, J. F.

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

Zewail, A. H.

M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6672 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

G. Alber, H. Ritsch, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1058 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M.-H. Lu and Y.-M. Liu, Appl. Phys. B 54, 288 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. M. Bloom, J. T. Yardley, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 427 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 88, 6672 (1988).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. A. Moore, W. R. Garrett, and M. G. Payne, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3692 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Alber, H. Ritsch, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. A 34, 1058 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Parker and C. R. Stroud, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 716 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baumert, B. Bühler, R. Thalweiser, and G. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 733 (1990); G. Rodriguez and J. G. Eden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 205, 371 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones, C. S. Raman, D. W. Schumacher, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2575 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels (U.S.??Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1971), Vol. I.

The energy and momentum constraints are ?s=2?p-?i and ns?skˆs=2np?pkˆp-ni?ikˆi, respectively, where s, p, and i denote parameters associated with the signal, pump, and idler, respectively, ? is the frequency, kˆ represents a wave vector, and n is the index of refraction.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level diagram for Rb, illustrating two-photon excitation of ns 2S and n-2d 2D states n=11, 12 and subsequent emission in the IR and the UV. The hatched region indicates the S2 and D2 states of Rb that are accessible with two pump photons, given the bandwidth of the available laser pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectrum in the 300–360-nm region produced by two-photon excitation of Rb vapor with red λmax620 nm, sub-100-fs pulses. Inset, expanded (and higher-resolution) view of the emission in the vicinity of the 11p 2PJ5s transitions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Intensity of the coherent Rb emission near the 11p P25s 2S1/2 (311-nm) line as a function of the time delay Δt between the pump and probe laser pulses. The periodicity of the oscillations is 350 fs and, although it is not shown here, the signal persists for tens of picoseconds. Inset, frequency spectrum (fast Fourier transform) associated with the emission-time delay scan. All the observed peaks are associated with differences in energy between states of the Rb atom; the feature at 459.4±1.6 cm-1 can be assigned to either the 11p 2PJ-10p 2PJ J=1/2 or the 9d 2DJ-10s 2S1/2 J=3/2, 5/2 defects. (b) Similar data obtained when coherent emission at 316 nm (associated with the 10p5s transition of Rb) was monitored.

Equations (2)

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IωsP˜3ωs 2χ3ωsEp 2Ei δ2ωp-ωi-ωs×δ-2βp+βi+βs2Ip2,
IUVωs1+cos2ωp2-ωp1Δt×χ3ωsEp 2Ei2+,

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