Abstract

We report a source of tunable laser radiation for high-precision molecular spectroscopy in the 2.6–4.1-µm spectral region. Laser light from a CO overtone laser is mixed with microwaves, generating tunable sidebands of 1 mW of power. We achieve very high absolute frequency accuracy by frequency-offset locking the CO laser to a CO2 laser secondary frequency standard. The uncertainty of the laser frequency is less than 30  kHz Δν/ν=3×10-10, and the laser linewidth is of the order of 100  kHz. This tunable and ultrastable laser system is suitable for very accurate molecular spectroscopy and metrology in a most interesting wavelength region. We demonstrate an application of the system to saturated-absorption spectroscopy of a rovibrational transition of carbonyl sulfide.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).
  2. Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Leberghe, and Ch. J. Borde, Opt. Commun. 58, 333 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1991).
  5. M. Gromoll-Bohle, W. Bohle, and W. Urban, Opt. Commun. 69, 409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Magerl and E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Magerl, W. Schupita, and E. Bonek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1214 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S.-C. Hsu, R. H. Schwendemann, and G. Magerl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2294 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Urban, in Applied Laser Spectroscopy, W. Demtröder and M. Inguscio, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 127–135.
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991).
  14. C. Freed and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997

M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. Gromoll-Bohle, W. Bohle, and W. Urban, Opt. Commun. 69, 409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

S.-C. Hsu, R. H. Schwendemann, and G. Magerl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Leberghe, and Ch. J. Borde, Opt. Commun. 58, 333 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

G. Magerl, W. Schupita, and E. Bonek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1214 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

G. Magerl and E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1970

C. Freed and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bachem, E.

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bohle, W.

M. Gromoll-Bohle, W. Bohle, and W. Urban, Opt. Commun. 69, 409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bonek, E.

G. Magerl, W. Schupita, and E. Bonek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1214 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Magerl and E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Borde, Ch. J.

Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Leberghe, and Ch. J. Borde, Opt. Commun. 58, 333 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, Ch.

Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Leberghe, and Ch. J. Borde, Opt. Commun. 58, 333 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dax, A.

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fink, T.

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

C. Freed and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53 (1970).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gromoll-Bohle, M.

M. Gromoll-Bohle, W. Bohle, and W. Urban, Opt. Commun. 69, 409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Havenith, M.

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

Hsu, S.-C.

S.-C. Hsu, R. H. Schwendemann, and G. Magerl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

C. Freed and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kühnemann, F.

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Magerl, G.

S.-C. Hsu, R. H. Schwendemann, and G. Magerl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Magerl, W. Schupita, and E. Bonek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1214 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Magerl and E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Maki, A. G.

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1991).

Makie, N.

M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

Meyer, B.

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mürtz, M.

M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

Palm, P.

M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saupe, S.

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, M.

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schupita, W.

G. Magerl, W. Schupita, and E. Bonek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1214 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwendemann, R. H.

S.-C. Hsu, R. H. Schwendemann, and G. Magerl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Urban, W.

M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Gromoll-Bohle, W. Bohle, and W. Urban, Opt. Commun. 69, 409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Urban, in Applied Laser Spectroscopy, W. Demtröder and M. Inguscio, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 127–135.
[CrossRef]

van Leberghe, A.

Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Leberghe, and Ch. J. Borde, Opt. Commun. 58, 333 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wappelhorst, M. H.

M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weidenfeller, A.

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J. S.

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1991).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991).

Zibrova, T.

M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

Appl. Phys. B

T. George, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 59, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Bachem, A. Dax, T. Fink, A. Weidenfeller, M. Schneider, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 57, 185 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 61, 169 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Wappelhorst, M. Mürtz, P. Palm, and W. Urban, Appl. Phys. B 65, 25 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Freed and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. Magerl and E. Bonek, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 452 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Magerl, W. Schupita, and E. Bonek, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1214 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Hsu, R. H. Schwendemann, and G. Magerl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2294 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

A. Dax, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, A. G. Maki, and W. Urban, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 168, 416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

Ch. Chardonnet, A. van Leberghe, and Ch. J. Borde, Opt. Commun. 58, 333 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Gromoll-Bohle, W. Bohle, and W. Urban, Opt. Commun. 69, 409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Urban, in Applied Laser Spectroscopy, W. Demtröder and M. Inguscio, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 127–135.
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991).

M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, T. Zibrova, and N. Makie, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: L, lens; PD, photodiode; RP’s, Rochon polarizers; EOM, electro-optic sideband modulator; AOM, acousto-optic modulator. MIM, metal–insulator–metal. Inset (a): design of the traveling-wave sideband modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of the beat note between the CO overtone laser and two CO2 lasers, averaged over 5  s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the beat-note frequency versus time. The sample time is 5  s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Record of the Lamb dip of the OCS P40 transition, 10010000 band near 2900 cm-1. The horizontal axis is the frequency of the local oscillator. Points, experimental data; curve, least-squares fit; CO laser line, P11, 28–26  band; microwave frequency, 12 050  MHz.

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