Abstract

Video-enhanced optical fluorescence microscopy has been used to determine the direction of the transition dipole moment of individual molecules. Fast electro-optical switching of the polarization of the excitation allowed us to detect the linear dichroism of single fluorophores in solid phospholipid membranes. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescence signal showed that rotational mobility is absent in solid biomembranes.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).
  2. D. A. Higgins, D. A. van den Bouten, J. Kerimo, and P. F. Barbara, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794 (1996).
  3. D. Sabbert, S. Engelbrecht, and W. Junge, Nature (London) 380, 623 (1996).
  4. T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).
  5. E. Sackmann, in Structure and Dynamics of Membranes, A. J. Hoff, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), p. 1.
  6. M. Velez and D. Axelrod, Biophys. J. 53, 575 (1988).
  7. R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).
  8. T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).
  9. X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).
  10. H. Frauenfelder, Science 254, 1598 (1991).
  11. Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).
  12. Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).
  13. L. K. Tamm and H. M. McConnel, Biophys. J. 47, 105 (1985).
  14. M. Lieberherr, Ch. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189, 664 (1987).

1996

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

1995

E. Sackmann, in Structure and Dynamics of Membranes, A. J. Hoff, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), p. 1.

1994

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).

1993

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

1988

M. Velez and D. Axelrod, Biophys. J. 53, 575 (1988).

1987

M. Lieberherr, Ch. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189, 664 (1987).

1985

L. K. Tamm and H. M. McConnel, Biophys. J. 47, 105 (1985).

Axelrod, D.

M. Velez and D. Axelrod, Biophys. J. 53, 575 (1988).

Barbara, P. F.

D. A. Higgins, D. A. van den Bouten, J. Kerimo, and P. F. Barbara, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794 (1996).

Baumgartner, W.

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

Chemla, D. S.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

Dunn, R. C.

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).

Enderle, Th.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

Engelbrecht, S.

D. Sabbert, S. Engelbrecht, and W. Junge, Nature (London) 380, 623 (1996).

Fattinger, Ch.

M. Lieberherr, Ch. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189, 664 (1987).

Frauenfelder, H.

H. Frauenfelder, Science 254, 1598 (1991).

Funatsu, T.

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

Gruber, H. J.

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).

Ha, T.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

Harada, Y.

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

Higgins, D. A.

D. A. Higgins, D. A. van den Bouten, J. Kerimo, and P. F. Barbara, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794 (1996).

Junge, W.

D. Sabbert, S. Engelbrecht, and W. Junge, Nature (London) 380, 623 (1996).

Kerimo, J.

D. A. Higgins, D. A. van den Bouten, J. Kerimo, and P. F. Barbara, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794 (1996).

Lieberherr, M.

M. Lieberherr, Ch. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189, 664 (1987).

Lukosz, W.

M. Lieberherr, Ch. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189, 664 (1987).

McConnel, H. M.

L. K. Tamm and H. M. McConnel, Biophys. J. 47, 105 (1985).

Ogletree, D. F.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

Pierce, D. W.

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

Romberg, L.

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

Sabbert, D.

D. Sabbert, S. Engelbrecht, and W. Junge, Nature (London) 380, 623 (1996).

Sackmann, E.

E. Sackmann, in Structure and Dynamics of Membranes, A. J. Hoff, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), p. 1.

Schindler, H.

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).

Schmidt, Th.

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).

Schütz, G. J.

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).

Selvin, P. R.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

Tamm, L. K.

L. K. Tamm and H. M. McConnel, Biophys. J. 47, 105 (1985).

Vale, R. D.

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

van den Bouten, D. A.

D. A. Higgins, D. A. van den Bouten, J. Kerimo, and P. F. Barbara, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794 (1996).

Velez, M.

M. Velez and D. Axelrod, Biophys. J. 53, 575 (1988).

Weiss, S.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

Xie, X. S.

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).

Yanagida, T.

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

Biophys. J.

M. Velez and D. Axelrod, Biophys. J. 53, 575 (1988).

L. K. Tamm and H. M. McConnel, Biophys. J. 47, 105 (1985).

J. Phys. Chem.

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17662 (1995).

D. A. Higgins, D. A. van den Bouten, J. Kerimo, and P. F. Barbara, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13794 (1996).

Nature (London)

D. Sabbert, S. Engelbrecht, and W. Junge, Nature (London) 380, 623 (1996).

R. D. Vale, T. Funatsu, D. W. Pierce, L. Romberg, Y. Harada, and T. Yanagida, Nature (London) 380, 451 (1996).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3979 (1996).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

Th. Schmidt, G. J. Schütz, W. Baumgartner, H. J. Gruber, and H. Schindler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 2926 (1996).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

T. Ha, Th. Enderle, D. F. Ogletree, D. S. Chemla, P. R. Selvin, and S. Weiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6264 (1996).

Science

X. S. Xie and R. C. Dunn, Science 265, 361 (1994).

H. Frauenfelder, Science 254, 1598 (1991).

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, Science 262, 1422 (1993).

Surf. Sci.

M. Lieberherr, Ch. Fattinger, and W. Lukosz, Surf. Sci. 189, 664 (1987).

Other

E. Sackmann, in Structure and Dynamics of Membranes, A. J. Hoff, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), p. 1.

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