Abstract

To compensate for scintillation we allow the real, nonnegative field in an aperture to propagate a distance z toward a detector, where the field will be complex. There, we modify its phase to emulate that of a clear aperture. The modified field that is propagated to the detector is nearly diffraction limited. No light is lost, and the Strehl ratio is improved substantially. We show how to modify the phase, and we present a computer simulation.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).
  2. R. Lawrence and J. Strohbehn, Proc. IEEE 58, 10 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Primmerman, T. Price, R. Humphreys, B. Zollaris, H. Carclay, and J. Herrmann, Appl. Opt. 34, 2081 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Stahl and D. Sandler, Astrophys. J. Lett. 454, L153 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Love and J. Gourlay, Opt. Lett. 21, 18 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 34, 275 (1971).
  7. R. Gonsalves, Opt. Eng. 21, 829 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Gonsalves, “Combatting scintillation with phase diversity,” in Smart Sensors for Space and Airborne Applications Workshop, L. McMackin and W. Arrasmith, eds. (Phillips Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1996).
  9. G. D. Love, Phillips Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 87117 (personal communication , November20, 1996).

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1982 (1)

R. Gonsalves, Opt. Eng. 21, 829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 34, 275 (1971).

1970 (1)

R. Lawrence and J. Strohbehn, Proc. IEEE 58, 10 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Carclay, H.

Gerchberg, R.

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 34, 275 (1971).

Gonsalves, R.

R. Gonsalves, Opt. Eng. 21, 829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Gonsalves, “Combatting scintillation with phase diversity,” in Smart Sensors for Space and Airborne Applications Workshop, L. McMackin and W. Arrasmith, eds. (Phillips Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1996).

Gourlay, J.

Herrmann, J.

Humphreys, R.

Lawrence, R.

R. Lawrence and J. Strohbehn, Proc. IEEE 58, 10 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Love, G.

Love, G. D.

G. D. Love, Phillips Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 87117 (personal communication , November20, 1996).

Price, T.

Primmerman, C.

Sandler, D.

S. Stahl and D. Sandler, Astrophys. J. Lett. 454, L153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W.

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 34, 275 (1971).

Stahl, S.

S. Stahl and D. Sandler, Astrophys. J. Lett. 454, L153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strohbehn, J.

R. Lawrence and J. Strohbehn, Proc. IEEE 58, 10 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R.

R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

Zollaris, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. Lett. (1)

S. Stahl and D. Sandler, Astrophys. J. Lett. 454, L153 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Gonsalves, Opt. Eng. 21, 829 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, Optik 34, 275 (1971).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. Lawrence and J. Strohbehn, Proc. IEEE 58, 10 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

R. Gonsalves, “Combatting scintillation with phase diversity,” in Smart Sensors for Space and Airborne Applications Workshop, L. McMackin and W. Arrasmith, eds. (Phillips Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 1996).

G. D. Love, Phillips Laboratories, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, 87117 (personal communication , November20, 1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average scintillation penalty S versus σ for several N.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic for scintillation compensation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scintillated aperture and its center x cut.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Uncompensated (top) and compensated (bottom) PSF's.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Uncompensated (top) and compensated (bottom) images of galaxy M-51 with the PSF's of Fig. 4

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=p0, 0p00, 0=Au, vdu dv2K0B2,
S=Au, vdu dv/B2A2u, vdu dv/B.
A=A0 expG.
SA2A2=A02 expσ2A02 exp2σ2=exp-σ2,

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