Abstract

Evanescent coupling between a side-polished single-mode optical fiber and a single-mode, pH-sensitive Langmuir–Blodgett overlay is used to demonstrate an intrinsic fiber-optic pH sensor. The sensor shows a wavelength sensitivity of 18.8±0.8 nm/pH and a transmission sensitivity of 9.7±0.8 dB/pH when operating at 750  nm.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

R. A. Lieberman, Sensors Actuators B 11, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. D. MacCraith, V. Ruddy, and C. Potter, Electron. Lett. 27, 1247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. R. Peterson, J. Phys. D. 23, 379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. Zhang and E. Garmire, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Tai, H. Tanaka, and T. Yoshino, Opt. Lett. 12, 437 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Ashwell, G. J.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Charters, R. B.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garmire, E.

M. Zhang and E. Garmire, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kuczynski, A. P.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leminger, O. G.

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, R. A.

R. A. Lieberman, Sensors Actuators B 11, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B. D.

B. D. MacCraith, V. Ruddy, and C. Potter, Electron. Lett. 27, 1247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, I. R.

I. R. Peterson, J. Phys. D. 23, 379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Potter, C.

B. D. MacCraith, V. Ruddy, and C. Potter, Electron. Lett. 27, 1247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

Ruddy, V.

B. D. MacCraith, V. Ruddy, and C. Potter, Electron. Lett. 27, 1247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Staines, S. E.

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, H.

Tanaka, H.

Tatam, R. P.

R. B. Charters, S. E. Staines, and R. P. Tatam, Opt. Lett. 19, 2036 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

Zengerle, R.

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang and E. Garmire, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. D. MacCraith, V. Ruddy, and C. Potter, Electron. Lett. 27, 1247 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Charters, A. P. Kuczynski, S. E. Staines, R. P. Tatam, and G. J. Ashwell, Electron. Lett. 30, 594 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Zhang and E. Garmire, J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 260 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D. (1)

I. R. Peterson, J. Phys. D. 23, 379 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sensors Actuators B (1)

R. A. Lieberman, Sensors Actuators B 11, 43 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the polished-fiber channel-dropping filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Molecular structure of the merocyanine dye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of 20 LB layers of the merocyanine dye, deposited onto a glass slide, before and after exposure to HCl vapor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental apparatus: WL, white-light source; MC, mechanical chopper; P, polarizer; L, ×20 microscope objective; SOPC, state-of-polarization controller; PD, photodiode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized TM transmission of the sensor: from left to right, the curves are for 11.52, 11.99, 12.31, 12.67, and 13.16  pH.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of resonant wavelength versus solution pH.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of sensor transmission versus solution pH for operating wavelengths 750 and 780  nm.

Equations (1)

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2πdλmn02-neff2=Φs+Φcl,

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