Abstract

We present a simple method to measure the contribution from acoustic phonons to the linear electro-optic effect. A step voltage with a short rise time (600  ps) is applied to the sample, and the electro-optic response is measured in the time domain. For the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST), we obtained a negative contribution of r111a=-1.0±0.1 pm/V to the overall electro-optic coefficient of r111=48±5 pm/V λ=1535 nm. The electro-optic response was limited only by the rise time of the applied voltage, which corresponds to a frequency of 1  GHz.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Follonier, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 21, 1655 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. R. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 195 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Schlesser, “Organic electro-optic crystals and thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, 1996).
  7. C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, eds., Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1995), Chap. 7, p. 131.
  8. C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 867 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Günter, in Electro-Optic and Photorefractive Materials, P. Günter, ed. (Springer, New York, 1987), Vol. 18, pp. 2–17.
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, and M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. O. Brigham, ed., The Fast Fourier Transform (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1974), Chap. 9, p. 141.
  14. X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
    [Crossref]

1996 (3)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Follonier, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 21, 1655 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, and M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

A. R. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 195 (1965).
[Crossref]

Boden, E. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bosshard, C.

S. Follonier, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 21, 1655 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 867 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[Crossref]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Follonier, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 21, 1655 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gotoh, T.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, and M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Follonier, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 21, 1655 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 867 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 721 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[Crossref]

P. Günter, in Electro-Optic and Photorefractive Materials, P. Günter, ed. (Springer, New York, 1987), Vol. 18, pp. 2–17.
[Crossref]

Iwamoto, M.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, and M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Johnson, A. R.

A. R. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 195 (1965).
[Crossref]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.-M.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. F.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, F.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Follonier, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, Opt. Lett. 21, 1655 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phelps, P. D.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schaeffer, W. P.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlesser, R.

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, R. Schlesser, and P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 867 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Schlesser, “Organic electro-optic crystals and thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, 1996).

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stewart, K. R.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Surmely, G.

K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sutter, K.

Tsunekawa, T.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, and M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. S.

K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, Adv. Mater. 8, 592 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. R. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 195 (1965).
[Crossref]

K. Sutter, C. Bosshard, W. S. Wang, G. Surmely, and P. Günter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1779 (1988).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, and M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaeffer, Science 245, 626 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

P. Günter, in Electro-Optic and Photorefractive Materials, P. Günter, ed. (Springer, New York, 1987), Vol. 18, pp. 2–17.
[Crossref]

R. Schlesser, “Organic electro-optic crystals and thin films,” Ph.D. dissertation (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, 1996).

C. Bosshard, K. Sutter, P. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, eds., Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1995), Chap. 7, p. 131.

E. O. Brigham, ed., The Fast Fourier Transform (Prentice-Hall, New York, 1974), Chap. 9, p. 141.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the electro-optic coefficient on the frequency of the applied electric field and the different contributions to the electro-optic effect.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the electro-optic response in the time domain. For the fast measurements on a nanosecond time scale, light passed through the crystal only once. HV, high voltage; D, detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Applied voltage to the crystal (top) and measured and calculated electro-optic response ΔI/Imax-Imin (bottom) on a microsecond time scale. Inset, molecular structure of DAST, consisting of the stilbazolium cation and tosylate anion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Applied voltage to the crystal (top) and measured electro-optic response ΔI/Imax-Imin (bottom) on a nanosecond time scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fast Fourier transformation of the measurement shown in Fig. 4. The electro-optic (EO) response folllows the applied field up to at least 1  GHz. For higher frequencies noise in the measured response prevents any conclusions.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ1n2ij=rijkΩEkΩ,
ΔIΩ=KrΩVΩ,
K=Imax-Iminπni3L2λh.
rΩ=reΩ+roΩ+raΩ=rsΩ+raΩ,
ΔIt=Krst+rat*Vt,
rt=rsδt+raω02ω02-Γ2exp-Γtsinω02-Γ21/2t,

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