Abstract

A method for acquiring range data based on time-correlated single-photon counting is described. This method uses a short-pulse (10-ps) laser diode, a detector based on a silicon single-photon avalanche diode, and standard photon-counting timing electronics. The accuracy of the technique has been measured as ±30 µm in a laboratory experiment and corresponds closely to the results of a theoretical simulation.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Besl, Mach. Vision Appl. 1, 127 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Koskinen, J. Typpo, and J. Kostamovaara, Proc. SPIE 1633, 128 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. A. McLean, H. R. Burris, and M. P. Strand, Appl. Opt. 34, 4343 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Beheim and K. Fritsch, Appl. Opt. 29, 1439 (1990).
  6. K. Seta and T. Ohishi, Appl. Opt. 29, 353 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. V. O'Connor and D. Phillips, (Academic, 1984).
  8. G. S. Buller, J. S. Massa, and A. C. Walker, Rev Sci. Instrum. 63, 2994 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1398 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).
  11. S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (3)

M. Koskinen, J. Typpo, and J. Kostamovaara, Proc. SPIE 1633, 128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller, J. S. Massa, and A. C. Walker, Rev Sci. Instrum. 63, 2994 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1398 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

G. Beheim and K. Fritsch, Appl. Opt. 29, 1439 (1990).

K. Seta and T. Ohishi, Appl. Opt. 29, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. J. Besl, Mach. Vision Appl. 1, 127 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beheim, G.

G. Beheim and K. Fritsch, Appl. Opt. 29, 1439 (1990).

Besl, P. J.

P. J. Besl, Mach. Vision Appl. 1, 127 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buller, G. S.

G. S. Buller, J. S. Massa, and A. C. Walker, Rev Sci. Instrum. 63, 2994 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burris, H. R.

Cova, S.

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1398 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Danilchenko, V. G.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Deryagin, A. G.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Fritsch, K.

G. Beheim and K. Fritsch, Appl. Opt. 29, 1439 (1990).

Ghioni, M.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, R.

R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guriev, A. I.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Koskinen, M.

M. Koskinen, J. Typpo, and J. Kostamovaara, Proc. SPIE 1633, 128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kostamovaara, J.

M. Koskinen, J. Typpo, and J. Kostamovaara, Proc. SPIE 1633, 128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kukshenkov, D. V.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Lacaita, A.

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Massa, J. S.

G. S. Buller, J. S. Massa, and A. C. Walker, Rev Sci. Instrum. 63, 2994 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McLean, E. A.

Molnar, J.

R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, T.

K. Seta and T. Ohishi, Appl. Opt. 29, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E. L.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Ripamonti, G.

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1398 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, W.

R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seta, K.

K. Seta and T. Ohishi, Appl. Opt. 29, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smirnitshii, V. B.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Strand, M. P.

Typpo, J.

M. Koskinen, J. Typpo, and J. Kostamovaara, Proc. SPIE 1633, 128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Unger, L.

R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, L. A.

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Walker, A. C.

G. S. Buller, J. S. Massa, and A. C. Walker, Rev Sci. Instrum. 63, 2994 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1398 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

E. A. McLean, H. R. Burris, and M. P. Strand, Appl. Opt. 34, 4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Beheim and K. Fritsch, Appl. Opt. 29, 1439 (1990).

K. Seta and T. Ohishi, Appl. Opt. 29, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. Ripamonti, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1398 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mach. Vision Appl. (1)

P. J. Besl, Mach. Vision Appl. 1, 127 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

R. Grabowski, W. Schweizer, J. Molnar, and L. Unger, Opt. Lasers Eng. 10, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Koskinen, J. Typpo, and J. Kostamovaara, Proc. SPIE 1633, 128 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. S. Buller, J. S. Massa, and A. C. Walker, Rev Sci. Instrum. 63, 2994 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Cova, A. Lacaita, M. Ghioni, and G. Ripamonti, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1104 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. A. Volkov, A. I. Guriev, V. G. Danilchenko, A. G. Deryagin, D. V. Kukshenkov, V. B. Smirnitshii, and E. L. Portnoi, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 497 (1989).

Other (1)

D. V. O'Connor and D. Phillips, (Academic, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental system: TAC, time–amplitude converter; ADC, analog–digital converter; MCA, multichannel analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of received photons from the single-photon avalanche diode detector, showing light scattered from the target and the reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the simulated and the experimental results for depth resolution as a function of accumulated photon returns. The top axis gives the corresponding positional accuracy. The right axis gives the number of positional measurements that could be performed per second, assuming a modest upgrade of the photon-counting system to allow data acquisition at a rate of 1  MHz.

Equations (2)

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σ¯=σ/N.
ft=A+Bit+Cit-τ,

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