Abstract

We have measured the timing jitter for dispersion-managed solitons in a recirculating loop for distances up to 20,000  km. The data were obtained with modulated data, 27-1 and 223-1 pseudorandom binary sequence patterns, at 10-Gbit/s rates and with an unmodulated pulse train at 10  GHz. We have obtained good agreement with our data, using a filtered Gordon–Haus model for the timing jitter reduced by the energy enhancement of our solitons relative to solitons in a fiber with a constant dispersion equal to our map's path-average dispersion. We have also measured a bit-error rate of <10-9 at a distance of 15,000  km.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Suzuki, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA1-1–FA1-3;I. Morita, M. Suzuki, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1573 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

1997 (2)

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

E. A. Golovchenko, J. M. Jacob, A. N. Pilipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, Opt. Lett. 22, 289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

A. Mecozzi, M. Midrio, and M. Romagnoli, Opt. Lett. 21, 402 (1996);F. Favre and V. Chandrakumar, Opt. Commun. 126, 343 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Bennion, I.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

E. A. Golovchenko, J. M. Jacob, A. N. Pilipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, Opt. Lett. 22, 289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. E.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

Forysiak, W.

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, E. A.

E. A. Golovchenko, J. M. Jacob, A. N. Pilipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, Opt. Lett. 22, 289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 11, 665 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, G. T.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa and Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995), pp. 133–138.

Haus, H. A.

Jacob, J. M.

E. A. Golovchenko, J. M. Jacob, A. N. Pilipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, Opt. Lett. 22, 289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

Knox, F. M.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, Y.

A. Hasegawa and Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995), pp. 133–138.

Luchnikov, A. V.

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

Mecozzi, A.

Menyuk, C. R.

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

E. A. Golovchenko, J. M. Jacob, A. N. Pilipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, Opt. Lett. 22, 289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midrio, M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, P. V. Mamyshev, and M. J. Neubelt, Opt. Lett. 19, 704 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neubelt, M. J.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

E. A. Golovchenko, J. M. Jacob, A. N. Pilipetskii, C. R. Menyuk, and G. M. Carter, Opt. Lett. 22, 289 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

Romagnoli, M.

Smith, N. J.

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA1-1–FA1-3;I. Morita, M. Suzuki, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. M. Dianov, A. V. Luchnikov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and A. M. Prokhorov, Appl. Phys. B 54, 175 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 130 (1997); J. M. Jacob, G. M. Carter, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA2-1–FA2-3.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 170 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Reed, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper FD1.

M. Suzuki, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 15 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. FA1-1–FA1-3;I. Morita, M. Suzuki, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1573 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Hasegawa and Y. Kodama, Solitons in Optical Communications (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1995), pp. 133–138.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured threshold voltage for a 10-6  bit-error rate. The squares are near the 1's, and the circles are near the 0's.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timing jitter as a function of propagation distance. For the modulated data the filled and open squares are bit-error-rate measurements and the eye measurements on the oscilloscope, respectively, using a 27-1  PRBS pattern; the filled and open circles are bit-error-rate and eye measurements on the oscilloscope, respectively, using a 223-1  PRBS pattern; ×'s are an unmodulated pulse train. The lines are the theoretical model with a 17-ps pulse width and an enhancement factor of 1.0 (dashed line) or 2.6  (solid line).

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