Abstract

The photorefractive properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals with a small number of defect densities grown by the double-crucible Czochralski method are investigated and compared with the defect densities of commercially available congruent Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals. Two-wave-mixing experiments show that novel stoichiometric crystals exhibit larger photorefractive gain and considerably faster response times than congruent ones. The results indicate that the nonstoichiometry defect control of photorefractive crystals is of key importance for the improvement of their properties.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 1471 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. H. Mok, Opt. Lett. 18, 915 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kitamura, Crystal Growth of Novel Electric Materials, R. K. Pandey and R. Guo, eds. , Vol. 60 of Ceramic Transactions (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Oh., 1995), p. 37.
  8. G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1995 (2)

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Jermann, M. Simon, and E. Krätzig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Jermann and J. Otten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Mok, Opt. Lett. 18, 915 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 17, 1471 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. M. O'Bryan, P. K. Gallagher, and C. D. Brandle, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68, 493 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Asano, H.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M. C.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzler, K.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brandle, C. D.

H. M. O'Bryan, P. K. Gallagher, and C. D. Brandle, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68, 493 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bridenbaugh, P. M.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, J. R.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, P. K.

H. M. O'Bryan, P. K. Gallagher, and C. D. Brandle, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68, 493 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gather, B.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grachev, V. G.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grasso, M.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iyi, N.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Izumi, F.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

F. Jermann, M. Simon, and E. Krätzig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2066 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Jermann and J. Otten, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2085 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, S.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitamura, Crystal Growth of Novel Electric Materials, R. K. Pandey and R. Guo, eds. , Vol. 60 of Ceramic Transactions (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Oh., 1995), p. 37.

Klauer, S.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

Leyva, V.

Malovichko, G. I.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F. H.

O'Bryan, H. M.

H. M. O'Bryan, P. K. Gallagher, and C. D. Brandle, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68, 493 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Otten, J.

Peterson, G. E.

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G. A.

Sato, M.

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, O. F.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schlarb, U.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simon, M.

Wöhlecke, M.

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, J. K.

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

G. I. Malovichko, V. G. Grachev, E. P. Kokanyan, O. F. Schirmer, K. Betzler, B. Gather, F. Jermann, S. Klauer, U. Schlarb, and M. Wöhlecke, Appl. Phys. A 56, 103 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Yeh, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 484 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

H. M. O'Bryan, P. K. Gallagher, and C. D. Brandle, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68, 493 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Carruthers, G. E. Peterson, M. Grasso, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 184 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

N. Iyi, K. Kitamura, F. Izumi, J. K. Yamamoto, T. Hayashi, H. Asano, and S. Kimura, J. Solid State Chem. 101, 340 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Furukawa, M. Sato, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, N. Iyi, and K. Kitamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2740 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, Science 265, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. Kitamura, Crystal Growth of Novel Electric Materials, R. K. Pandey and R. Guo, eds. , Vol. 60 of Ceramic Transactions (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Oh., 1995), p. 37.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of as-grown LN crystals in the ultraviolet and the visible light regions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maximum exponential gain coefficient Γ for stoichiometric and congruent LN crystals with reduced annealing conditions. Two-wave mixing was performed at Λg=1.6 µm and I0=10 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photorefractive response time τ for stoichiometric and congruent LN crystals with reduced annealing conditions. Two-wave mixing was performed at Λg=1.6 µm and I0=10 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photorefractive buildup time τ of 270  ppm of Fe-doped stoichiometric LN at Λg=1.6 µm for various annealing conditions as a function of incident beam intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Exponential gain coefficient of stoichiometric LN versus Fe-dopant concentration for various annealing conditions at Λg=1.6 µm and I0=10 W/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photorefractive buildup time τ versus Fe-dopant concentration for reduced stoichiometric LN at Λg=1.6 µm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ=Is with ref./Iswithout ref.
Γ=1/L lnmγ/1+m-γ,

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