Abstract

We measure the point-spread function in the two main configurations of 4Pi confocal microscopy as well as in the traditional confocal arrangement and derive the optical transfer functions from the experimental data. The optical transfer functions are in good agreement with their theoretical counterparts. We find a 3.5- to 5-fold increased axial bandwidth of the 4Pi confocal microscope and hence confirm the enhanced spatial-frequency content of 4Pi images.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. W. Hell, European Patent Application 91121368.4 (1992).
  2. S. W. Hell and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  6. B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. W. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, and C. Cremer, Opt. Lett. 19, 222 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 177, 128 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. T. M. van der Voort and K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. T. M. van der Voort and K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 177, 128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, and C. Cremer, Opt. Lett. 19, 222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, C.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, and C. Cremer, Opt. Lett. 19, 222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 177, 128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hänninen, P. E.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, and C. Cremer, Opt. Lett. 19, 222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell and E. H. K. Stelzer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, European Patent Application 91121368.4 (1992).

Lindek, S.

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Lindek, and C. Cremer, Opt. Lett. 19, 222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Salo, J.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, M.

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1619 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 177, 128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Soini, E.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

Strasters, K. C.

H. T. M. van der Voort and K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van der Voort, H. T. M.

H. T. M. van der Voort and K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. W. Hell, S. Lindek, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1335 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (3)

H. T. M. van der Voort and K. C. Strasters, J. Microsc. 178, 165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Schrader and S. W. Hell, J. Microsc. 183, 189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu and C. J. R. Sheppard, J. Microsc. 177, 128 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 349 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. W. Hell, European Patent Application 91121368.4 (1992).

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical [(a), (c), (e)] and experimental [(b), (d), (f)] point-spread functions for the confocal [(a), (b)]; the 4Pi(A) [(c), (d)]; and the 4Pi(C) [(e), (f)] geometries. In all the cases the optic axis is shown horizontally; the lateral axis, vertically. The scan region is a 2.5-µm square.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical [(a), (c), (e)] and experimental [(b), (d), (f)] transfer functions for the confocal [(a), (b)], the 4Pi(A) [(c), (d)], and the 4Pi(C) [(e), (f)] cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Axial [(a), (c), (e)] and focal-plane [(b), (d), (f)] cuts through the three-dimensional transfer functions shown in Fig. 2. The theoretical data are shown as solid curves and the experimental data as dashed curves. Graphs (a), (b) correspond to the confocal case; (c), (d), to the 4Pi(A) case; and (e), (f) to the 4Pi(C) case.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=h1h2τ2,
Ir,z=h1r,zh2r,z2,
Ir,z=hr,z4.
I=hr,z+hr,-z2hr,±z2.
I=hr,z+hr,-z4.
I=h1h22f,
Cl,s=h1h2r,z2×expjszJ0rlrdrdz,

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