Abstract

Surface-relief hexagonal-array diffraction gratings have been produced by three-beam coherent exposure. Collimated light was used in an attempt to produce a uniform relief profile over the total area of a 7.6-cm plate coated with a positive photoresist. The resulting gratings were reproduced in nickel by an electroforming process and analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The topography of the gratings was found to be that predicted by theory. The results obtained show that the gratings were of uniform profile over their total area.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Savander and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 94, 101 (1993).
  2. B. A. Mello, I. F. Costa, C. R. A. Lima, and L. Cescato, Appl. Opt. 34, 597 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. J. J. Cowan, U.S. patent4,496,216 (January29, 1985).
  6. T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, and H. Mitzutani, U.S. patent4,402,571 (December20, 1983).
  7. O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).
  8. J. J. Cowan, Opt. Eng. 24, 796 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Cowan, Proc. SPIE 503, 120 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1995

1994

1993

P. Savander and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 94, 101 (1993).

1991

M. Miler and I. Aubrecht, Proc. SPIE 1574, 22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).

1985

J. J. Cowan, Opt. Eng. 24, 796 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. J. Cowan, Proc. SPIE 503, 120 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aubrecht, I.

M. Miler and I. Aubrecht, Proc. SPIE 1574, 22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cescato, L.

Costa, I. F.

Cowan, J. J.

J. J. Cowan, Opt. Eng. 24, 796 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cowan, Proc. SPIE 503, 120 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cowan, U.S. patent4,496,216 (January29, 1985).

Iizuka, K.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, and H. Mitzutani, U.S. patent4,402,571 (December20, 1983).

Isken, J. P.

Keinonen, T.

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).

Lima, C. R. A.

Lindstrom, R.

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).

Malacra, D.

Mello, B. A.

Miler, M.

M. Miler and I. Aubrecht, Proc. SPIE 1574, 22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mitzutani, H.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, and H. Mitzutani, U.S. patent4,402,571 (December20, 1983).

Ohtaka, K.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, and H. Mitzutani, U.S. patent4,402,571 (December20, 1983).

Perez, A. O.

Salano, C. E.

Salminen, O.

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).

Savander, P.

P. Savander and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 94, 101 (1993).

Sheridan, J. T.

P. Savander and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 94, 101 (1993).

Silfsten, P.

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).

Suzuki, T.

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, and H. Mitzutani, U.S. patent4,402,571 (December20, 1983).

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

J. J. Cowan, Opt. Eng. 24, 796 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Optik

P. Savander and J. T. Sheridan, Optik 94, 101 (1993).

Phys. Status Solidi

O. Salminen, T. Keinonen, R. Lindstrom, and P. Silfsten, Phys. Status Solidi 100, K1 (1987).

Proc. SPIE

J. J. Cowan, Proc. SPIE 503, 120 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Miler and I. Aubrecht, Proc. SPIE 1574, 22 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. J. Cowan, U.S. patent4,496,216 (January29, 1985).

T. Suzuki, K. Iizuka, K. Ohtaka, and H. Mitzutani, U.S. patent4,402,571 (December20, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the three-beam coherent setup: (a) plan view, (b) side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image of a three-beam coherent grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pseudo-three-dimensional AFM view of the grating, showing the variation in ridge height.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional analysis showing the relief profile.

Equations (1)

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d=λ02sinψ,

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