Abstract

A small number of bifunctional monomers are mixed with a nematic liquid crystal (LC) and cured with a distributed electric field, which is produced by a circular-hole-patterned electrode structure. A gradient type of lens, that is, a LC microlens, is investigated for various polymer concentrations. Addition of 3% polymer is enough to freeze the gradient-index properties of the structure in the form of a convex lens, and a polymer-stabilized LC microlens is demonstrated. Although a lower concentration of polymer cannot hold the distribution properties in a curing process, it can maintain the variable focus as a nematic material can. The polymer networks can also eliminate the disclination line that usually appears and causes the lens in this type of LC device to deteriorate.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. K. Yang and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 23, 759 (1992).
  2. P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 24, 887 (1993).
  3. J. Li, J. R. Kelly, C. D. Hoke, and P. J. Bos, presented at the 1995 ASIA Display meeting, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 16, 1995.
  4. J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).
  5. D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).
  6. T. Nose and S. Sato, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nose, S. Masuda, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, presented at the Fifth Micro-Optic Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, October 18, 1995.
  9. S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Nose, T. Sato, and S. Sato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 275, 63 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Systems, ACS Symp. Ser.162, 182 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (4)

J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).

D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, T. Sato, and S. Sato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 275, 63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 24, 887 (1993).

1992 (2)

D. K. Yang and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 23, 759 (1992).

T. Nose, S. Masuda, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. Nose and S. Sato, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).

J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).

P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 24, 887 (1993).

J. Li, J. R. Kelly, C. D. Hoke, and P. J. Bos, presented at the 1995 ASIA Display meeting, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 16, 1995.

Boyden, M. N.

L. C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Systems, ACS Symp. Ser.162, 182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L. C.

L. C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Systems, ACS Symp. Ser.162, 182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Citano, C. M.

L. C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Systems, ACS Symp. Ser.162, 182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doane, J. W.

P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 24, 887 (1993).

D. K. Yang and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 23, 759 (1992).

Fredley, D. S.

D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).

J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).

Fujioka, S.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, C. D.

J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).

J. Li, J. R. Kelly, C. D. Hoke, and P. J. Bos, presented at the 1995 ASIA Display meeting, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 16, 1995.

Honma, M.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. R.

J. Li, J. R. Kelly, C. D. Hoke, and P. J. Bos, presented at the 1995 ASIA Display meeting, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 16, 1995.

Li, J.

D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).

J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).

J. Li, J. R. Kelly, C. D. Hoke, and P. J. Bos, presented at the 1995 ASIA Display meeting, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 16, 1995.

Masuda, S.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, S. Masuda, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, presented at the Fifth Micro-Optic Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, October 18, 1995.

Nose, T.

T. Nose, T. Sato, and S. Sato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 275, 63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, S. Masuda, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose and S. Sato, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, presented at the Fifth Micro-Optic Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, October 18, 1995.

Quinn, B. M.

D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).

Rahman, J. A.

P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 24, 887 (1993).

Sato, S.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, T. Sato, and S. Sato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 275, 63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose, S. Masuda, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Nose and S. Sato, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, presented at the Fifth Micro-Optic Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, October 18, 1995.

Sato, T.

T. Nose, T. Sato, and S. Sato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 275, 63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walz, A. J.

L. C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Systems, ACS Symp. Ser.162, 182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 23, 759 (1992).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Nose, S. Masuda, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 4668 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Nose and S. Sato, Liq. Cryst. 5, 1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

T. Nose, T. Sato, and S. Sato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 275, 63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

SID Digest Tech. Papers (3)

D. K. Yang and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 23, 759 (1992).

P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, SID Digest Tech. Papers 24, 887 (1993).

J. Li, C. D. Hoke, D. S. Fredley, and P. J. Bos, SID Digest Tech. Papers,  27, 265 (1996).

SID J. (1)

D. S. Fredley, J. Li, B. M. Quinn, and P. J. Bos, SID J. 4, 89 (1996).

Other (3)

J. Li, J. R. Kelly, C. D. Hoke, and P. J. Bos, presented at the 1995 ASIA Display meeting, Hamamatsu, Japan, October 16, 1995.

L. C. Chien, M. N. Boyden, A. J. Walz, and C. M. Citano, in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Systems, ACS Symp. Ser.162, 182 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, T. Nose, and S. Sato, presented at the Fifth Micro-Optic Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, October 18, 1995.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) a LC cell structure and (b) the experimental setup for measuring its optical properties.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference fringe pattern of the polymer-stabilized LC microlens with no voltage applied. The polymer concentration is 3%, and the curing voltage is 4.5  V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical properties of the polymer-stabilized LC microlens. (a) Multiple character image observed through the microlens array in Fig.  1, (b) light-intensity profile at a focal point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference fringe patterns observed in a nematic LC cell without polymer. Small black loops are disclination lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observation images of the LC cells with (a) 2% and (b) 1% polymer concentrations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Character images observed with voltages of (a) 3  V and (b) 5  V applied. The polymer concentration is 1%, and the curing voltage is 5  V.

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