Abstract

We describe a fiber-optic sensor capable of detecting high humidity. The device is constructed from standard telecommunications single-mode fiber and is compatible with deployment in a serial array, permitting interrogation by optical time-domain reflectometry for network monitoring. The sensors exhibit a reversible change in insertion loss between their dry (lossy) and humid (transmissive) states. The loss can be tailored to take any value; the current devices were designed to change by 2.5  dB at a wavelength of 1.31  µm. The sensors are simple to construct and are compatible with installation in an existing passive optical network. The transduction mechanism is based on the humidity-induced change in refractive index in a polymer overlay on a polished half-block single-mode fiber device.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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1995 (2)

1993 (2)

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Shimizu and N. Tomita, NTT Rev. 3, 34 (1991).

1990 (1)

N. Tomita, M. Tachino, and N. Kasahara, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

K. Ogawa, S. Tsuchiya, H. Kawakami, and T. Tsutsui, Electron. Lett. 24, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 34 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 2883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, J. R. Feth, L. F. Stokes, and H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 10, 463 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Archenault, M.

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, F. E.

F. E. Bailey and J. V. Koleske, Polyethylene Oxide (Academic, New York, 1976).

Ballantine, D. S.

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 2883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bergqvist, E.

Carlstrom, B.

Castle, P. F.

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 34 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Feth, J. R.

Fletcher, K. S.

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, S-I.

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

Gagnaire, H.

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goure, J. P.

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Graham, N. B.

Harris, A. J.

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 34 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, N.

N. Tomita, M. Tachino, and N. Kasahara, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, H.

K. Ogawa, S. Tsuchiya, H. Kawakami, and T. Tsutsui, Electron. Lett. 24, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, J. V.

F. E. Bailey and J. V. Koleske, Polyethylene Oxide (Academic, New York, 1976).

Konstantakis, M.

Kotler, G.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

Leminger, O. G.

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, I.

Michie, W. C.

Mitschke, F.

Moran, C.

Ogawa, K.

K. Ogawa, S. Tsuchiya, H. Kawakami, and T. Tsutsui, Electron. Lett. 24, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pichery, T.

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ronot, C.

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A. P.

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sankaa, I.

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

Santos, F.

Shaw, H. J.

Shimizu, F.

F. Shimizu and N. Tomita, NTT Rev. 3, 34 (1991).

Stewart, G.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, L. F.

Tachino, M.

N. Tomita, M. Tachino, and N. Kasahara, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, N.

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

F. Shimizu and N. Tomita, NTT Rev. 3, 34 (1991).

N. Tomita, M. Tachino, and N. Kasahara, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, S.

K. Ogawa, S. Tsuchiya, H. Kawakami, and T. Tsutsui, Electron. Lett. 24, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

K. Ogawa, S. Tsuchiya, H. Kawakami, and T. Tsutsui, Electron. Lett. 24, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wakui, Y.

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

Wohltjen, H.

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 2883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, Anal. Chem. 58, 2883 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

A. P. Russell and K. S. Fletcher, Anal. Chim. Acta 170, 209 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Ogawa, S. Tsuchiya, H. Kawakami, and T. Tsutsui, Electron. Lett. 24, 42 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, and H. J. Shaw, Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. E (1)

I. Sankaa, Y. Koyamada, S-I. Furukawa, T. Horiguchi, N. Tomita, and Y. Wakui, IEICE Trans. Commun. E 76B, 402 (1993).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

N. Tomita, M. Tachino, and N. Kasahara, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Harris and P. F. Castle, J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 34 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Leminger and R. Zengerle, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 864 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Jin, G. Stewart, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1471 (1995).
[CrossRef]

NTT Rev. (1)

F. Shimizu and N. Tomita, NTT Rev. 3, 34 (1991).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors Actuators B (1)

C. Ronot, M. Archenault, H. Gagnaire, J. P. Goure, N. Jaffrezic-Renault, and T. Pichery, Sensors Actuators B 11, 375 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. E. Bailey and J. V. Koleske, Polyethylene Oxide (Academic, New York, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of sensor. Note that the radius of fiber curvature is greatly exaggerated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loss characteristics of a typical half-coupler with two different overlays applied (symbols, data from experiment; solid curves from theory).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Humidity response of a typical sensor with a PEO overlay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OTDR traces for a four-sensor serial array (resolution, 10  m; λ=1.31 µm). The lower trace corresponds to the case in which all the sensors are dry; the upper trace shows sensors 1 and 3 to be humid while sensors 2 and 4 remain dry.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Derived Parameters for the Four Sensors, Giving the Thickness of the Cladding Layer (d) and the Interaction Length (L)

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